Effect of different distillation methods on quantity and quality of essential oil of two Ziziphora L. species

Document Type : Original article


1 Isfahan Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Kashan Botanical Garden), Iran;

2 Essential Oils Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran;


Background & Aim: Ziziphora L. genus belongs to the Lamiaceae family, which has important medicinal and aromatic plant species. In current study, essential oil chemical compositions of two Ziziphora L. species (Z. tenuior L. and Z. clinopodioides Lam.) were investigated. Experimental: The flowering branches of Z. tenuior and Z. clinopodioides were collected in spring and summer 2011. The aerial parts dried in shade at room temperature. The flowering branches of these species subjected to volatile fraction were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), hydro distillation (using a Clevenger-type apparatus), steam-cooled distillation (ultrasonic) and steam distillation. The analysis of the oils was performed by using GC and GC-MS. Results & Discussion: The results indicated the essential oil yield of Z. tenuior ranged 0.2% to 2.3% (w/w), and Z. clinopodioides ranged 0.3% to 1.3% (w/w(. In total, 18 components were identified in Z. tenuior essential oil, and 33 components were identified in Z. clinopodioides essential oil. The main components of Z. tenuior essential oil were pulegon (80.01% - 90.10%), and piperitenone (4.5% - 7.14%). The major compounds in Z. clinopodioides essential oil were pulegon (25.87% - 35.20%), piperitenone (10.11% - 27.88%), menthol (11.41%-17.50%), and menthon (0 - 7.69%). The highest percentage of menthol in essential oil in two species obtained from SDE method. Industrial and practical recommendations: According to the purity 81% of pulegon combination in essential oil of Ziziphora with 2% essential oil yield, can be purified in production of Ziziphora.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثر روش های مختلف اسانس گیری بر کمیت و کیفیت اسانس دو گونه از جنس کاکوتی (Ziziphora L)

Authors [فارسی]

  • حسین بتولی 1
  • مریم اخباری 2
  • سید محمد جواد حسینی‌زاده 2
1 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان (باغ گیاه‌شناسی کاشان)، کاشان، ایران؛
2 پژوهشکده اسانس‌های طبیعی دانشگاه کاشان)، کاشان، ایران؛
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف: جنس "کاکوتی"(Ziziphora L.) متعلق به خانواده نعناعیان(Lamiaceae)، دارای گونه‌های داروئی و معطره بسیار ارزشمندی است که تاکنون بالغ بر 25 گونه از این جنس در جهان و 4 گونه یک ساله و چند ساله از ایران گزارش شده ‌است. در این تحقیق ترکیب‌های شیمیائی اسانس دو گونه­ی کاکوتی(Z. tenuior L.، Z. clinopodioides Lam.) منطقه قمصر کاشان مورد بررسی قرار گرفته‌ است. روش تحقیق: سرشاخه‌های گل‌دار گونه‌‌های مذکور در بهار سال 1390 جمع‌آوری و به روش های مختلف شامل تقطیر و استخراج با بخار هم­زمان با حلال آلی (SDE)، کلونجر، اسانس­گیری با بخار سرد (با استفاده از امواج فراصوت) و تقطیر با بخار آب اسانس‌گیری شدند. برای شناسائی ترکیب‌های تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس، از دستگاه‌های گاز کروماتوگرافی(GC) و گاز کروماتوگرافی متصل‌ شده به طیف‌سنج جرمی(GC/MS) استفاده شد. نتایج و بحث: عملکرد اسانس در روش‌های مختلف، در گیاه کاکوتی یا   Z. tenuior بین 2/0 تا 3/2% و در گیاه کاکوتی کوهی یا  Z. clinopodioides بین 3/0 تا 3/1% متغییر بود. 18 ترکیب شیمیائی در اسانس سرشاخه‌های گل‌دار گیاه کاکوتی و 33 ترکیب در اسانس گیاه کاکوتی‌کوهی شناسایی شدند. اجزای اصلی اسانس کاکوتی شامل پولگون (1/90%-0/80%) و پی­پریتنون (1/7%-5/4%) بودند. بیشترین ترکیب‌های تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس کاکوتی‌‌کوهی شامل پولگون (2/35%-9/25)، پی­پریتنون (9/27%-1/10%)، منتول(5/17%-4/11%) و منتون (7/7%-0) بودند. حضور درصد بالای منتول در اسانس گیاه کاکوتی‌کوهی، باعث مرغوبیت اسانس این گیاه شده ­است. بهترین راندمان اسانس در دو گیاه، متعلق به روش تقطیر و استخراج با بخار همزمان با حلال آلی بود. توصیه کاربردی/صنعتی: با توجه به خلوص 81 درصدی ترکیب پولگون در اسانس گیاه کاکوتی و با در نظر داشتن بازده حدوداً دو درصدی استحصال اسانس، می­توان در صورت کشت مکانیزه این گیاه، ترکیب مورد نظر را خالص سازی نمود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • کاکوتی‌ گیاهان معطر نعناعیان اسانس پولگون
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