Effect of the essential oil of thyme on intestinal morphology in Rat

Document Type : Original article


Department of Agricultural Science, Payam Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran


Background & Aim:  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in clinical medicine. The adverse effects they produce in the gastrointestinal tract however, often limit their utility. Oxidative stress has been shown to occur in the small intestine in response to the oral administration of indomethacin. In view of this, the effect of thyme essential oil, an agent with anti-oxidant properties, was evaluated on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in a rat model. Experimental: The chemical composition of thyme essential oil was identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Tissues morphology affected by indomethacin, with and without treatment with thyme, was measured. Results & Discussion: The small intestine morphology (villus height, villus width, and crypt depth and crypt width of duodenum, jejunum and ilea) from indomethacin-treated animals with thyme oil was significantly improved than those from indomethacin animals. Treatment with thyme oil was found to ameliorate these drug-induced changes. Recommended applications/industries: The essential oil of thyme appears to hold promise as an agent that can potentially reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced small intestinal damage.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثر کاربرد اسانس گیاه آویشن در بافت شناسی روده موش صحرایی

Authors [فارسی]

  • حشمت سپهری مقدم
  • مژده عمادی
  • الهام ملاشاهی
گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور تهران، تهران، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف:  داروهای ضدالتهاب غیراستروئیدی در پزشکی بالینی استفاده می شوند. اگرچهگاهی اثرات خاصی در دستگاه گوارش ایجاد می­نمایند. استفاده خوراکی داروی ایندومتاسین باعث بروز استرس اکسیداتیو در روده کوچک می­شود. روش تحقیق:  تاثیر آویشن که دارای خصوصیات آنتی­اکسیدانی است بر موش­هائی که با ایندومتاسین تغذیه اجباری شده­بودند, بررسی شد.مواد موثره آویشن از طریق اسپکتوفتومتری گاز کروماتوگرافی تعیین شد. نتایج و بحث: ارتفاع پرز, عرض پرز, ارتفاع کریپت و عرض کریپت در دئودنوم, ژژنوم و ایلئوم موش­­های تغذیه شده با ایندومتاسین و تیمار شده با آویشن در مقایسه با موش­های تغذیه شده با ایندومتاسین بهبود معنی­داری نشان داد. توصیه کاربردی/ صنعتی: تیمول حاصل از انسانس آویشن به عنوان ماده ای موثر در جهت کاهش اثرات زیانبار داروی ایندومتاسین توصیه می­شود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  •  ایندومتاسین  روده کوچک  آویشن
Abimosleh, S.M., Tran, C.D. and Howarth, G.S. 2013. Emu oil reduces small intestinal inflammation in the absence of clinical improvement in a rat model of indomethacin-induced enteropathy. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 429706, 10 pages.
Aptekmann, K.P., Baraldi, A.S.M., Stefanini, M.A. and Orsi, M.A. 2001. Morphometric analysis of the intestine of domestic quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) treated with different lev-els of dietary calcium. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia., 30:277-280.
Asfar, A., Abdeen, S., Dashti, H., Khoursheed, M., Al-Sayer, H., Mathew, T. and Al-Bader, A. 2003. Effect of green tea in the prevention and reversal of fasting-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Nutrition., 19: 536–540.
Bancroft, J.D. and Gamble, M.N. 2002. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 5th Ed, Churchill Livingstone, London.
Boudry, G. and Perrier, C. 2008. Thyme and cinnamon extracts induce anion secretion in piglet small intestine via cholinergic pathways. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology., 59(3): 543-552.
Braga, P.C., Dalsasso, M., Culici, M., Bianchi, T., Bordoni, L. and Marabini, L. 2006. Anti-inflammatory activity of thymol: inhibitory effect of the release of human neutrophil elastase. Pharmacology., 77:130-136.
Demir, E., Sarica, Ş., Özcan, M.A. and Suiçmez, M. 2003. The use of natural feed additives as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diets. British Poultry Science., 45(Supp. 1):44 (Abstract.).
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range test and multiple F tests. Biometrics., 11:1–42.
Fang, J., Yan, F.Y., Kong, X.F., Ruan, Z., Liu, Z.Q., Huang, R.L., Geng, M.M., Yang, F., Zhang, Y.Z., Li, P., Gong, J., Wu, G.Y., Fan, M.Z., Liu, Y.L., Hou, Y.Q. and Yin, Y.L. 2009. Dietary supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus extract enhances gut health in weaning piglets. Livestock Science., 123: 268–275.
Fang, W.F., Broughton, A. and Jacobson, E.D. 1997. Indomethacin induced intestinal inflammation. Digestive Diseases., 22: 749-60.
Garcia, V., Catala-Gregori, V., Hernandez, F., Megias, M.D. and Madrid, J. 2007. Effect of formic acid and plant extracts on growth, nutrient digestibility, intestine mucosa morphology and meat yield of broilers. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research., 16:555–562.
Guo, F., Kwakkel, C.R.P., Soede, J. and Williams, B.A. 2004. Effect of a Chinese herb medicine formulation as an alternative for antibiotics on performance of broiler. British Poultry Science., 45: 793–797.
Hanczakowska, E. and Swiatkiewicz, M. 2012. Effect of herbal extracts on piglet performance and small intestinal epithelial villi. Czech Journal of Animal Science., (9): 420–429.
Jamroz, D., Wertelecki, T., Houszka, M. and Kamel, C. 2006. Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition., 90: 255-268
Khaksar, V., Golian, A. and Raji, A. 2013. Effect of feed additives on intestinal histomorphology of broilers fed wheat-based diet. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science., 3: 725-731.
Kruk, I., Michalska, T., Lichszteld, K., Kladna, A. and Aboul-Enein, H.Y. 2000. The effect of thymol and its derivate on reactions generating reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere., 41:1054-1064.
Menozzi, A., Sozzoli,  C., Poli,  E., Martelli, M., Martelli, L., Zullian, C. and Bertini, S. 2009. Effects of oral curcumin on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in the rat. Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics., 3(2): 71-76.
Montagne, L., Pluske, J.R. and Hampson, D.J. 2003. A review of interactions between dietary fibre and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Animal Feed Science and Technology., 108:95-117.
Pappenheimer, J.R. and Michel, C.C. 2003. Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport. Journal of Physiology., 2: 561–574.
Sakamoto, K., Hirose, H., Onizuka, A., Hayashi, M., Futamura, N., Kawamura, Y. and Ezaki, T. 2000. Quantitative study of changes in intestinal morphology and mucus gel on total par-enteral nutrition in rats. Journal of Surgical Research., 94:99-106.
SAS. 2002. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Software Release 9.1. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
Tipu, M.A., Akhtar, M.S., Anjum, M.I. and Raja, M.L. 2006. New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed. Pakistan Veterinary Journal,26:144-148.
Velazques, G., Borbolla, A.G., Mariscal-Landin, G., Reis de Souza, T. and Pinelli, A. 2005. Intestinal morphology of weaned pigs fed diets containing herbal extracts as growth promoters. Journal of Animal Science., 83 (Suppl. 1), M87.
Xu, Z.R., Hu, C.H., Xia, M.S., Zhan, X.A. and Wang, M.Q. 2003. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers. Poultry Science., 82: 1030–1036.
Yamada, S., Naito, Y., Takagi, T., Mizushima, K., Horie, R., Fukumoto, K., Inoue, K., Harusato, A., Uchiyama, K., Handa, O., Yagi, N., Ichikawa, H. and Yoshikawa, T. 2012. Rebamipide ameliorates indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury in rats via the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology., 27(12): 1816-1824.