The effects of Thyme extrac (Thymus vulgaris) on systemic antibody responses against Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chickens

Document Type : Original article


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz- Iran

2 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz- Iran


Background & Aim: The recent study was conducted to investigate the effects of Thyme extract in drinking water on immune response of broiler chickens. Experimental:  A total of 245 day-old broiler chicks were purchased and 20 chicks were bled for determination maternal antibody and remaining chicks divided into 5 equal groups. Chickens of group A, B and C received 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2% ofThyme extract in drinking water for all of the period of experiment, respectively. Chickens of group D did not receive Thyme extract but vaccinated against Newcastle and Influenza diseases. Chickens of group E were kept as control group and did not receive Thyme extract and Newcastle and Influenza diseases vaccines. Chickens of group A, B, C and D were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain) intraocularly and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2) subcutaneously of neck back. Blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 after vaccination. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and antibody titer against Newcastle and Influenza vaccine virus was determined by HI test. Results & Discussion: The results of present study showed that Thyme extract has no effect on antibody response against Newcastle vaccine virus, but 14 days after vaccination, receiving of 0.2% ofThyme extract, significantly increased the specific antibody response against Influenza vaccine virus compared to all groups. Industrial and practical recommendations: Herbs that are rich in flavonoids such as thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extend the activity of vitamin C, act as antioxidants and may therefore enhance the immune function.


Article Title [فارسی]

اثرعصاره ی آویشن (Thymus vulgaris) بر پاسخ ایمنی در برابر ویروس واکسن بیماری آنفلوانزا و نیوکاسل در جوجه‌های گوشتی

Authors [فارسی]

  • فروغ طلازاده 1
  • منصور میاحی 1
  • حسین نجف زاده ورزی 2
  • حدیث نوروزی زاده 2
1 گروه علوم بالینی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران
2 گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف:مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر عصاره آویشن بر پاسخ ایمنی علیه واکسن بیماری آنفلوانزا و نیوکاسل انجام شد. روش تحقیق: دویست و چهل و پنج قطعه جوجه‌ی یک روزه‌ی گوشتی خریداری و  بیست قطعه جوجه برای تعیین میزان پادتن مادر‌ی خون‌گیری شده و بقیه­ی جوجه­ها به طور تصادفی به 5 گروه مساوی تقسیم شدند. جوجه­های گروه A،B وC عصاره­ی آبی آویشن را به ترتیب به میزان 1/0 درصد، 15/0 درصد و 2/0 درصد در آب آشامیدنی در طول دوره­ی پرورش دریافت نمودند. جوجه­های گروه E، عصاره­ی آویشن را دریافت نکردند اما علیه بیماری نیوکاسل واکسینه شدند. جوجه­های گروه F به عنوان گروه کنترل، عصاره­ی آویشن و واکسن نیوکاسل دریافت نکردند. جوجه­های گروه­های A، B، C و D، با واکسن زنده‌ی B1 به روش قطره­­ی چشمی و واکسن کشته‌ی دوگانه نیوکاسل-آنفلوانزای تحت ‌تیپ (H9N2)، به روش زیر پوست پشت گردن واکسینه شدند. در روزهای صفر (قبل از واکسیناسیون)، 14، 28 و 35 بعد از واکسیناسیون، از 10 قطعه جوجه از هر گروه، به طور تصادفی، خون‌گیری به عمل آمد و عیار پادتن ویژه­ی نیوکاسل به وسیله آزمایش ممانعت از هماگلوتیناسیون تعیین گردید. نتایج و بحث:نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که عصاره­ی آویشن، تاثیری برپاسخ پادتن ویژه­ی ویروس واکسن نیوکاسل ندارد اما دریافت 2/0 درصد عصاره آویشن در 14 روز بعد از واکسیناسیون، عیار پادتن ویژه­ی ویروس واکسن آنفلوانزا را در مقایسه با سایر گروه ها به طور معنی داری افزایش داد. توصیه کاربردی/ صنعتی: گیاهانی مانند آویشن که سرشار از فلاونوئیدهامی باشد فعالیت ویتامین C را توسعه می دهند، به عنوان آنتی اکسیدان عمل می کنند و بنابراین ممکن است عملکرد سیستم ایمنی بدن را افزایش دهند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • عصاره ی آویشن
  • پاسخ ایمنی
  • بیماری نیوکاسل
  • جوجه ی گوشتی
  • بیماری آنفلوانزا
Abu-Darwish, M.S., Abu-Dieyeh, Z.H., Batarseh, M., Al-Tawaha, A.R.M and Al-Dalian, S.Y.A. 2009. Trace element contents and essential oil yields from wild thyme plant (Thymus serpyllum. L) growth at different natural variable environments, Jordan. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 7: 920-924.
Al-Kassie, G.A.M. 2009. Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon on broiler performance. Pakistan Vetenary Journal, 29:169-173.
Al-Mashhadani, E., Farah, H., Al-Jaff, K., Farhan, Y. M. and AL-Mashhadani, H.E. Effect of anise, thyme essential oils and their mixture (EOM) on broiler performance and some physiological traits. 2011. Egyptian Poultry Science, 31(2): 481-489.
Bach Knudsen, K.E. 2001. Development of antibiotic resistance and options to replace antimicrobials in animal diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60:291-299.
Basilico, M.Z. and Basilico, J.C. 1999. Inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 growth and ochratoxin A production. Letter Applied Microbiology, 29: 238-24
Bolukbasi, S., Erhan, M. 2007. Effect of dietary Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on laying hens performance and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in feces. International journal of natural and engineering science, 1(2): 55-58.
Cervantes H. 2006. Banning antibiotic growth promoters: Learning from the European experience. Poultry International, 45: 14-15.
Cook, N. C. and Samman, S. 1996. Flavonoids-chemistry, Metabolism, Cardioprotective Effects, and Dietary Sources. Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry, 7:66-76.
Cross, D.E., McDevitt, R.M., Hillman, K. 2007. Acamovic. The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. British Poultry Science, 48: 496–506.
El-Ghousein, S.S and N.A. Al-Beitawi. 2009. The effect of feeding of crushed Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on growth, blood constituents, gastrointestinal tract and carcass characterestrics of broiler chickens. Journal of Poultry Science, 46: 100-104
Fan, M and J. Chen. 2001. Studies on antimicrobial activity of extracts from thyme. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, 41: 499-504.
Feizi, A., Bijanzad, P. 2010. Evaluating the Effects of Thymus vulgaris extract on Growth Performance Parameters in Broiler Chicken. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 12: 39-45.
Friedman M., Henika, P. R. and Mandrell, R. E. 2002. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection, 65:1545-1560.
Greathead, H. 2003. Plants and plant extracts for improving animal productivity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62:279-290.
Hertrampf, J.W. 2001. Alternative antibacterial, performance promoters. Poultry International, 40:50-52.
Juven, B. J., Kanner, J., Schved, F.  and Weisslowicz, H. 1994. Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 76:626-631.
Lee, K. W., Everts, H., Kappert, H. J., Frehner, M., Losa, R. and Beynen, A. C. 2003. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44: 450-457.
Liu, X. Y. 1999. Stress and Immunity. In: "Poultry Immunology", (Ed.): Yin, T. B.China Agriculture Press, Beijing, China, 230–252.
Manach, F., Regerat, F. and Texier, O. 1996. Bioavailability, Metabolism and Physiological Impact of 4-oxo-flavonoids. Nutrition Research, 16: 517-44.
Masada, Y. 1976. Analysis of oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Johan Wiley and Sons.
Nevas, M., Korhonen, A. R., Lindstrom, M., Turkki, P. and Korkeala, H. 2004. Antibacterial efficiency of finnish spice essential oils against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Journal of Food Protection, 67: 199-202.
Nollet, L. 2005. AGP alternatives-part I. EU close to a future without antibiotic growth promoters. World Poultry, 21: 14-15.
Patterson, J.A., Burkholder, K.M. 2003. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poultry Science, 82: 627–631.
Rahimi, S., Teymouri Zadeh, Z., Karimi Torshizi, M. A., Omidbaigi, R. and Rokni, H. 2011. Effect of the Three Herbal Extracts on Growth Performance, Immune System, Blood Factors and Intestinal Selected Bacterial Population in Broiler Chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13: 527-539
Ricke, S.C. 2003. Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poultry Science , 82: 632–639.
Suppakul, P., Miltz, J., Sonneveld, K. and Bigger, S. W. 2003. Antimicrobial properties of basil and its possible application in food packaging. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 3197- 3207.
Tabak, M., Armon, R., Potasman, I. and Neeman, I. 1996. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by extracts of thyme. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 80: 667-672.
Teymouri Zadeh, Z., Rahimi, S.H., Karimi Torshizi, M.A., Omidbaigi, R. 2009. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Vol 25, No. 1.
Thakare, M. 2004. Pharmacological screening of some medicinal plants as antimicrobial and feed additive, M.S Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia USA.
Toghyani, M., Tohidi M,Gheisari, A., Tabeidian, S. 2010. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chicks fed dietary thyme as  alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(40): 6819-6825.
Ultee, A., Slump. R. A., Steging, G. and Smid, E. J. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice. Journal of Food Protection, 63: 620-624.
Vahdatpour, T., Nikpiran, H., Babazadeh, D., Vahdatpourand, S. & Jafargholipour, M.A. 2011. Effects of Protexin ®, Fermacto ® and combination of them on blood enzymes and performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix Japonica). Annals of Biological Researches, 2: 283-291.
Wakeman, G.W. 2005. AGP alternatives- Part II. Dietary strategies to influence bacterial microflora. World Poultry, 21: 28-29.
Vincent, H.V. 2002. Carvacrol and thymol reduce swine waste odour and pathogens stability of oils. Current Microbiology, 44: 38-43.