Chemical compositions of the essential oil of Gundelia tournefortii L. (Asteraceae) from Central Zagros, Iran

Document Type : Original article


1 Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

2 Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran


Background & Aim: Gundelia tournefortii L. (Tumbleweed) has been identified as one of the well-known and widely distributed plants with various applications in some of Asian and North African countries. It belongs to the (Asteraceae) family and grows in the Middle East particularly in the temperate, mountainous and semi desert areas of countries such as Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Turkmenistan and some regions of Azerbaijan and Armenia. The aim of this study was to identify of the chemical components of G.Tournefortii L. in some of its habitats into Central Zagros area, Iran. Experimental: In this regard, G. tournefortii L. was collected from some of its natural habitats in the mentioned area and air dried. The essential oil of the plant was isolated by hydro-distillation with a yield of 0.8 % (v/w). Also, the chemical compositions of volatile oil were analyzed using GC-MS.
Results & Discussion: The results indicated that major components were palmitic acid (12.48 %), lauric acid (10.59 %), alpha ionene (6.68 %), myristic acid (4.45 %), 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl (3.61 %), phytol (3.6 %), and beta turmerone (3.4 %). Industrial and practical recommendations: Gundelia tournefortii L. is known as a plants with many therapeutic properties especially in traditional and contemporary medicine in the world. Also, this plant has a useful nutritional solute such as potassium and calcium.


Article Title [فارسی]

ترکیبات شیمیایی گیاه کنگر صحرایی (آفتابگردان) از زاگرس مرکزی، ایران

Authors [فارسی]

  • حمیدرضا فرهنگ 1
  • محمدرضا وهابی 1
  • علیرضا علافچیان 2
1 گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
2 پژوهشکده نانوفناوری و مواد پیشرفته، دانشگاه صنعتی، اصفهان، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف: کنگر صحرایی به عنوان یکی از گیاهان مشهور و به طور گسترده توزیع یافته با کاربرد های مختلف در برخی از کشور های آسیایی و شمال آفریقا شناخته شده است. آن به خانواده آفتابگردان تعلق دارد و در خاورمیانه به ویژه در مناطق معتدل، کوهستانی و نیمه بیابانی کشور هایی مانند ایران، عراق، ترکیه، اردن، سوریه، مصر، ترکمنستان و در بعضی نواحی آذربایجان و ارمنستان رشد می یابد. هدف از این مطالعه شناسایی ترکیبات شیمیایی گیاه کنگر صحرایی از بعضی از رویشگاه های آن در منطقه زاگرس مرکزی ایران بود.
 روش تحقیق: در این راستا گیاه کنگر صحرایی از برخی رویشگاه های طبیعی آن در منطقه مذکور جمع آوری و هوا خشک شد. اسانس گیاه توسط تقطیر با بخار آب با تولید 0/8 درصد جداسازی شد. همچنین ترکیبات شیمیایی روغن فرار با استفاده از کروماتوگرافی گازی طیف سنج جرمی مورد تجزیه قرار گرفتند.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج نشان داد که ترکیبات عمده اسید پالمیتیک (12/48%)، اسید لاریک (10/59%)، آلفا یونن (6/68%)، اسید مریستیک (4/45%)، 1 هگزادکانول 2 متیل (3/61%)، فیتول (3/6%) و بتا تومرونه (3/4%) بودند.
توصیه کاربردی/صنعتی: کنگر صحرایی به عنوان یکی از گیاهان دارای خواص درمانی بسیار به ویژه در طب سنتی و مدرن در جهان شناخته شده است. همچنین این گیاه دارای املاح غذایی سودمندی مانند پتاسیم و کلسیم است.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • زاگرس مرکزی
  • اسانس
  • کروماتوگرافی گازی طیف سنج جرمی
  • کنگر صحرایی
  • رویشگاه
  • ایران
Aburjai, T.A., Darwish, M., Al Khalil, S., Mahajznh, A. and Al Abbadi, A. 2001. Screening of antibiotic resistance inhibitors from local plant materials against two different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 76: 39–44.
Adams, R.P. 2007. Identification of Essential oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, fourth ed. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, USA.
Bagci, E., Hayta, S., Kilic, O. and Kocak, A. 2010. Essential oils of two varieties of Gundelia tournefortii L. (Asteraceae) from turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22: 6239–6244. 
Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia. 1998. European Pharmacopoeia: Supplement. Council of Europe.
Coruh, N., Saghdicogla Cleep, A.G., Ozgokce, F. and Iscan, M. 2007. Antioxidant capacities of Gundelia tournefortii L. extract and inhibition on glutathione-S-transferase activity. Food Chemistry, 100: 1249–1253.
Curtis, T. and Williams, D.G. 2001. Introduction to Perfumery, 2nd ed. Micelle Press, Fort Washington, New York. pp 1–778.
Dalia, A.A., Namama, S.H. and Hamid, G.H. 2012. Characteristics of fatty acid content in Gundelia L. oil extract. Iraqi Natural Journal of Chemistry, 45: 144–148.
Darwish, R.M. and Aburjai, T.A. 2010. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10: 1–8.
Dogan, Y., Baslar, S., Ay, G. and Huseyin, M.H. 2004. The use of wild edible plants in western and central Anatolia (Turkey). Economic Botany, 58: 684–690.
Erciyes, A.T., Karaosmanoglo, F. and Civelekoglu, H. 1989. Fruit oils of four plant species of Turkish origin. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 66: 1459–1464.
Ertug, F. 2000. An ethnobotanical study in Central Anatolia (Turkey). Economic Botany, 54: 155–182.
Haghi, G., Hatami, A. and Arshi, R. 2011. Distribution of caffeic acid derivatives in Gundelia tournifortii L. Food Chemistry, 124: 1029–1035.
Halabi, S., Battah, A.A., Aburjai, T. and Hudaib, M. 2005. Phytochemical and antiplatelet investigation of Gundelia tournifortii. Pharmceutical Biolology, 4: 496–500.
Hucklenbroich, J., Klein, R., Neumaier, B., Graf, R., Rudolf Fink, G., Schroeter, M. and Adel Rueger, M. 2014. Aromatic turmerone induces neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 5: 1–9.
Jamishdzadeh, A., Fereidoni, F., Salehi, Z. and Niknahad, H. 2005. Hepatoprotective activity of Gundelia tourenfortii. L. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 101: 233–237.
Jarald, E., Joshi, S.B. and Jain, D.C. 2008. Diabetes and herbal medicines. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 7: 97–106.
Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Gurbus, Y., Erol, A. and Ozay, O. 2005. Effect of maturity stage on chemical composition, in vitro and in situ dry matter degradation of tumbleweed hay (Gundelia tournifortii L.) Small Ruminant Research, 58: 149–156.
Kaplan, D., Pevzner, D., Galilee, M. and Gutman, M. 1995. Traditional selective harvesting effects on occurrence and reproductive growth of Gundelia tournfortii L. in Israel grasslands. Israel Journal of plant Sciences, 43: 163–166.
Karabulut, A., Ozcan, C.O., Kamalak, A. and Canbolat, O. 2006. Comparison of the nutritive value of a native Turkish forage, tumbleweed hay (Gundelia tournifortii L.), wheat straw and alfalfa hay using in situ and in vitro measurments with sheep. Archivous Latinoamericanos de Produccion Animal, 14: 78–83.
Khanzadeh, F., Hadad Khodaparast, M.H., Elhami Rad, A.H. and Rahmani, F., 2012. Physiochemical Properties of Gundelia tournefortii L. Seed Oil. Journal of Agriculture Science Technology, 14: 1535–1542. 
Lev Yadun, S. and Abbo, S. 1999. Traditional use of Akub (Gundelia tournefortii, Asteraceae) in the Israel and the Palestinian Authority area. Economic Botany, 53: 217–223.
Matthaus, B. and Ozcan, M.M. 2011. Chemical evaluation of flower bud and oils of tumbleweed (Gundelia tournifortii L.) as a new potential nutrition sources. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 35: 1257–1266.
Mavi, A., Lawrence, G.D., Kordali, S. and Yildirim, A. 2011. Inhibition of iron fructose phosphate induced lipid peroxidation in lecithin liposome and linoleic acid emulsion systems by some edible plants. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 35: 833–844.
McLafferty, F.W. 2013. Wiley registry of mass spectral data. tenth ed. Mass Spectrometry Library Search System Bench-Top/PBM, New York.
Oryan, S., Nasri, S., Amin, G.H.R. and Kazemi Mohammadi, S.M.M. 2011. Anti- nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aerial parts of Gundelia tournefortii L. on NMRI male mice Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 12: 8–15.
Pengely, A., 1996. the constituents of medicinal plants. first ed. Allen and Unwin, Australia.
Rechinger, K.H. 1989. Tribus Arctotidea Arctoteae Cass. In: Flora Iranica, Akademische Druku Verlags Antalt Graz, Austria.
Salunkhe, D.K., Charan, J.K., Adjule, R.N. and Kadam, S.S. 1992. World Oil seeds. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Co, Inc, New York, USA.
Sarper, F., Akadian, G., Simsek, I. and Yesildad, E. 2009. An ethnobotanical field survey in the haymana district of Ankara Province in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Biology, 33: 79–88.
Sezik, E., Yesilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y. and Tanaka, T. 2001. Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in central Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacolology, 75: 95–115.
Sharaf, K.H., Ali, J.S., and Sharaf, K. 2004. Hypolipemic effect of Kuub (Gundelia tournifortii L.) oil and clofibrate on lipid profile of atherosclerotic rats. Vetrinariski Arhive, 74: 359–370.
Tawaha, K., Alali, F.Q., Gharaibeh, M., Mohammad, M., and El Elimat, T., 2007. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contant of selected Jordanian plant species. Food Chemistry, 104:  1372–1378.
Vitek, E. and Jarvis, C. 2007. The typification of Gundelia tournifortii L. (Compositae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 108B: 267–272.