Effects of different sources of nitrogen fertilizer and applied rates on essential oil content and composition of peppermints

Document Type : Original article


1 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Khouzestan, Iran

2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran;


Background & Aim:Peppermint known for its healing properties is a plant from the Labiatae family. Currently, different rates of nitrogenous fertilizers are used in production of peppermint while there is no precise information available about how much of nitrogen fertilizer is the optimum rate for this plant. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the response of peppermint chemical composition to different nitrogen rates and type of nutrition strategy (with control and conventional chemical sources). Experimental: Samples collected from different mint nutrition strategy [conventional: four nitrogen levels from three fertilizers source (UAN, urea and ammonium sulfate), and control (no added fertilizer) in the Khouzestan province at the southwest of Iran.
Results: Nitrogen supply led to increase of fresh and dry yield of peppermint. Maximum essential oil obtained from 210 kgN/ha of nitrogen fertilizer in UAN which showed the best results compared to urea, ammonium sulfate and control. The GC/MS data showed that the qualitative of the components appeared to be not constant in different nutrient strategy. Moreover, remarkable variations were found in the amounts of the major of essential oil constituents. A total thirty-five components, comprising 98.87, 97.62, 98.09 and 97.98% of the obtained total essential oils were characterized in control, UAN, urea and ammonium sulfate samples, respectively. Also Menthol (41.22, 33.7, 30.62 and 33.23%), menthone (16.32, 26.25, 27.33 and 26.7 %), menthofuran (4.09, 4.74, 5.81 and 5.14 %) and isomenthone (6.47, 7.48, 7.26 and 7.43%) were the main components of peppermint oil. Recommended applications/industrie: Since, essential oil of peppermint, particularly menthol component, has many application in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry due to antiviral, antibacterial and antispasmodic activity, UAN fertilizers is recommended to be used in addition to control in view of the increasing in quality and quantity of essential oil.


Article Title [فارسی]

تاثیر کاربرد سطوح منابع مختلف کود نیتروژن بر محتوا و ترکیبات اسانس نعناع فلفلی

Authors [فارسی]

  • عادل پشت دار 1
  • علیرضا ابدالی مشهدی 1
  • فواد مرادی 2
  • سید عطا صیادت 1
  • عبدالمهدی بخشنده 1
1 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Khouzestan, Iran
2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran;
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف: نعناع فلفلی به عنوان گیاهی شفا بخش از خانواده نعناعیان شناخته شده است. اکنون، سطوح مختلف کودهای نیتروژن در تولید نعناع فلفلی استفاده می شوند در حالی که اطلاعات دقیقی درباره مقدار اپتیمم کود نیتروژن برای این گیاه در دسترس نیست. هدف اصلی از این تحقیق ارزیابی پاسخ ترکیبات شیمیایی نعناع فلفلی در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و نوع استراتژی تغذیه‏ای (با شاهد و منابع شیمیایی سنتی) بود.
روش تحقیق: نمونه‏ها با استراتژی تغذیه‏ای متفاوت در نعناع ( سنتی شامل چهار سطح نیتروژن از سه منبع کود UAN، اوره و سولفات آمونیوم و شاهد(عدم مصرف کود)) در استان خوزستان در جنوب غربی ایران جمع‏آوری شدند.
نتایج و بحث: نیتروژن مصرفی سبب افزایش عملکرد تر و خشک نعناع فلفلی گردید. حداکثر اسانس نعناع از میزان 210 kgN/ha برای هر سه فرم کود بدست آمد اگرچه UAN نتیجه بهتری نسبت به اوره و سولفات آمونیوم نشان داد. نتایج آنالیز GC/MASS نشان داد کیفیت ترکیبات اسانس در سیستم های مختلف تغذیه ای یکسان نیست و از لحاظ ترکیبات اصلی اسانس تفاوت قابل توجهی دارند. در مجموع 35 ترکیب شناسایی شد که به ترتیب در شاهد و UAN، اوره و سولفات آمونیوم به ترتیب 8/98 ،6/97، 06/98 و 9/97 درصد از کل ترکیبات را شامل شدند. همچنین به ترتیب منتول 22/41، 7/33، 62/30 و 23/33 درصد، منتون 32/16 ،25/26، 33/27 و 7/26 درصد، منتوفوران 09/4 ،74/4، 81/5 و 14/5 درصد و ایزو منتون 47/6 ،48/7، 26/7 و 43/7 درصد ترکیبات اصلی نعناع فلفلی بودند.
توصیه کاربردی و صنعتی: از آنجایی که اسانس نعناع فلفلی، خصوصا ترکیب منتول در صنایع داروسازی و عطر سازی کاربرد دارد و دارای خواص درمانی نظیر خاصیت ضد ویروسی، ضدباکتریایی و ضد اسپاسم است، توصیه می شود علاوه بر شاهد، از کود UAN برای افزایش کمیت و کیفیت اسانس نعناع فلفلی استفاده شود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • فیتوشیمی
  • منتول
  • GC/MS
  • Mentha piperita
  • UAN
Adams, R.P. 2004. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, USA, 456p.
Behnam, S., Farzaneh, M., Ahmadzadeh, M. and Tehrani, A.S. 2006. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Menthapiperita and Lavendulaangustifolia on post-harvest phytopathogens. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences., 71(3): 1321-1326.
Chalchat, J.C., Garry, R.P., Michet, A. 1997. Variation of the chemical composition of essential oil of Menthapiperita L. during the growing time. J. Essent. Res., 9: 463–465.
Chand, S., Patra, N.K., Anwar, M., Patra, D.D. 2004. Agronomy and uses of menthol mint (Menthaarvensis) Indian prospective. Proc. Indian Nat. Sci. AcadB., 70 (3): 269–297.
Dangour, A. D., Dodhia, S. K., Hayter, A., Allen, E., Lock, K., Uauy, R. 2009.Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 90: 680−685.
Duhan, SPS., Bhattacharya, AK., and Husain A. 1977. Effect of N and its methods of application on the herb and quality of corn mint. Indian Perfume., 21: 135–138.
Grinder-Pedersen, L., Rasmussen, S. E., Gel, S. B., Jorgensen, L. V., Dragsted, L. O., Gundersen, V., Sandstrom, B. 2003. Effect of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 5671−5676
Hawkesford. M. J. 2014. Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. Journal of Cereal Science., 59: 276e283
Hornok L. 1983. Influence of nutrition on the yield and content of active compounds in some essential oil plants. Acta Horticulturae., 132: 239–247.
Hussain, A.I., Anwar, F., Nigam, P.S., Ashraf, M. and Gilani, A.H. 2010. Seasonal variation in content, chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from four Mentha species. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture., 90: 1827-1836.
Iscan, G., Kirimer, N., kurkcouglo M., Baser K.H. and Demirci, F. 2002. Antimicrobial Screening of Menthapiperita Essential Oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry., 50: 3943-3946.
Khanuja, S.P.S. 2007. Aroma vision 2020: Technology path of cultivating today for a fragrant tomorrow. National convention & seminar on business enabling of aromatic plants & products at Dehradun, India. November., 21-22.
Kothari SK & Singh UB. 1995. The effect of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization on scotch spearmint (Menthagracilis Sole). Journal of Essential Oil Research., 7: 287–297.
Marotti. M., R., Piccaglia. W., Crout. K., Craufutd. And S. Deans. 2004. Effect of planting time and mineral fertilization on peppermint (Menthapiperita L.) essential oil composition and its biological activity. Flavor and Fragrance Journal., 9(3): 125-129.
Matson, P.A., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. 1998. Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science., 280: 112-115.
Mitchell, A.R. and N.A. Farris. 1996. Peppermint response to nitrogen fertilizer in an arid climate. J. Plant Nutr., 19: 955–967.
Murray, MJ., Marble, P., Lincoln, D & Hefendehl, FW. 1988. Peppermint oil quality differences and the reasons for them. Flavors and Fragrances: Proceeding of the 10th International Congress of Essential oils, Fragrances and Flavors, Washington, DC, U.S.A. p 189– 208.
Patra, N.K., Kumar, B., Shukla, K., Ram, P. and Srivastava, H.K. 2002. Problems and issues of Agrotechnology transfer in menthol mint: A case study with variety Kosi. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants CIMAP, Lucknow. pp: 440-443.
Saxena, A. and Singh, J.N. 1995. Effect of irrigation, mulch and nitrogen on yield and composition of corn mint (Menthaarvensis L. subsp. Haplocalyx var. piperascens) oil. Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag - Berlin ISSN. 0931-2250, 183–188.
Singh, A.K., Naqvi, A.A, Singh, K. and Thakur, R.S. 1988. Transformation of menthol, menthone and menthyl acetate in cornmint with relation to age of plant. Current Science., 57: 480-481.
Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G. 1989. Statistical Methods, 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
Subbarao, G.V., Sahrawat, K.L., Nakahara, K., Rao, I.M., Ishitani, M., Hash, C.T., Kishii, M., Bonnett, D.G., Berry, W.L., Lata, J.C. 2013. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Ann. Bot. 112, 297-316.
Verma, R.S., Rahman L., Verma, R.K., Chauhan, A., Yadav, A.K. and Singh, A. 2010. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Menthaarvensis) and Peppermint (Menthapiperita) Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 1(1): 13-18
Yadegarinia, D., Gachkar, L., Rezaei, MB.,Taghizadeh, M., AlipoorAstaneh, S.H. and Rasooli, I. 2006. Biochemical activities of Iranian Menthapiperita L. and Myrtuscommunis L. essential oils. Phytochemistry., 67: 1249- 1255.