Effects of different sources of nitrogen fertilizer and applied rates on essential oil content and composition of peppermints

Document Type: Original article


1 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Khouzestan, Iran

2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran;


Background & Aim:Peppermint known for its healing properties is a plant from the Labiatae family. Currently, different rates of nitrogenous fertilizers are used in production of peppermint while there is no precise information available about how much of nitrogen fertilizer is the optimum rate for this plant. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the response of peppermint chemical composition to different nitrogen rates and type of nutrition strategy (with control and conventional chemical sources). Experimental: Samples collected from different mint nutrition strategy [conventional: four nitrogen levels from three fertilizers source (UAN, urea and ammonium sulfate), and control (no added fertilizer) in the Khouzestan province at the southwest of Iran.
Results: Nitrogen supply led to increase of fresh and dry yield of peppermint. Maximum essential oil obtained from 210 kgN/ha of nitrogen fertilizer in UAN which showed the best results compared to urea, ammonium sulfate and control. The GC/MS data showed that the qualitative of the components appeared to be not constant in different nutrient strategy. Moreover, remarkable variations were found in the amounts of the major of essential oil constituents. A total thirty-five components, comprising 98.87, 97.62, 98.09 and 97.98% of the obtained total essential oils were characterized in control, UAN, urea and ammonium sulfate samples, respectively. Also Menthol (41.22, 33.7, 30.62 and 33.23%), menthone (16.32, 26.25, 27.33 and 26.7 %), menthofuran (4.09, 4.74, 5.81 and 5.14 %) and isomenthone (6.47, 7.48, 7.26 and 7.43%) were the main components of peppermint oil. Recommended applications/industrie: Since, essential oil of peppermint, particularly menthol component, has many application in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry due to antiviral, antibacterial and antispasmodic activity, UAN fertilizers is recommended to be used in addition to control in view of the increasing in quality and quantity of essential oil.


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر کاربرد سطوح منابع مختلف کود نیتروژن بر محتوا و ترکیبات اسانس نعناع فلفلی

Authors [Persian]

  • عادل پشت دار 1
  • علیرضا ابدالی مشهدی 1
  • فواد مرادی 2
  • سید عطا صیادت 1
  • عبدالمهدی بخشنده 1
1 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Khouzestan, Iran
2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran;
Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه و هدف: نعناع فلفلی به عنوان گیاهی شفا بخش از خانواده نعناعیان شناخته شده است. اکنون، سطوح مختلف کودهای نیتروژن در تولید نعناع فلفلی استفاده می شوند در حالی که اطلاعات دقیقی درباره مقدار اپتیمم کود نیتروژن برای این گیاه در دسترس نیست. هدف اصلی از این تحقیق ارزیابی پاسخ ترکیبات شیمیایی نعناع فلفلی در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و نوع استراتژی تغذیه‏ای (با شاهد و منابع شیمیایی سنتی) بود.
روش تحقیق: نمونه‏ها با استراتژی تغذیه‏ای متفاوت در نعناع ( سنتی شامل چهار سطح نیتروژن از سه منبع کود UAN، اوره و سولفات آمونیوم و شاهد(عدم مصرف کود)) در استان خوزستان در جنوب غربی ایران جمع‏آوری شدند.
نتایج و بحث: نیتروژن مصرفی سبب افزایش عملکرد تر و خشک نعناع فلفلی گردید. حداکثر اسانس نعناع از میزان 210 kgN/ha برای هر سه فرم کود بدست آمد اگرچه UAN نتیجه بهتری نسبت به اوره و سولفات آمونیوم نشان داد. نتایج آنالیز GC/MASS نشان داد کیفیت ترکیبات اسانس در سیستم های مختلف تغذیه ای یکسان نیست و از لحاظ ترکیبات اصلی اسانس تفاوت قابل توجهی دارند. در مجموع 35 ترکیب شناسایی شد که به ترتیب در شاهد و UAN، اوره و سولفات آمونیوم به ترتیب 8/98 ،6/97، 06/98 و 9/97 درصد از کل ترکیبات را شامل شدند. همچنین به ترتیب منتول 22/41، 7/33، 62/30 و 23/33 درصد، منتون 32/16 ،25/26، 33/27 و 7/26 درصد، منتوفوران 09/4 ،74/4، 81/5 و 14/5 درصد و ایزو منتون 47/6 ،48/7، 26/7 و 43/7 درصد ترکیبات اصلی نعناع فلفلی بودند.
توصیه کاربردی و صنعتی: از آنجایی که اسانس نعناع فلفلی، خصوصا ترکیب منتول در صنایع داروسازی و عطر سازی کاربرد دارد و دارای خواص درمانی نظیر خاصیت ضد ویروسی، ضدباکتریایی و ضد اسپاسم است، توصیه می شود علاوه بر شاهد، از کود UAN برای افزایش کمیت و کیفیت اسانس نعناع فلفلی استفاده شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • فیتوشیمی
  • منتول
  • GC/MS
  • Mentha piperita
  • UAN
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