Antioxidant activities, polyphenolic composition and their correlation analysis on Hibiscus sabdarifa L. (sabdariffa) calices

Document Type : Original article


1 Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

3 Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Kerman Center, Kerman, Iran


Background & Aim:Extracts of Roselle calyx,   possess compounds which could be considered as a great source of natural antioxidants.   In this project, antioxidant activities, phenolic compounds content and their   correlation analysis on calices of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was investigated.  Experimental: Total polyphenolic compound, flavonoids and anthocyanins were determined spectrophotometrically. Catalase and peroxidase activity was estimated based on unit per milligram protein. Total antioxidant capacities of the extract were studied using phosphomolybdate assay, DPPH assay and FRAP method.  Results: The hibiscus calices were rich in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Peroxidase and catalase activity was estimated as 3.13 and 0.05 unit mg-1 protein, respectively. Calyx extract showed high antioxidant activities specially based on DPPH assay. Correlation analysis was also performed between parameters. There was a positive significant correlation between the levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of calices at P Recommended applications/industries: Extracts of H. sabdariffa L. (sabdariffa) calices are rich in antioxidant compounds including total phenolic compounds, flavonoids content, and anthocyanins. Based on all the method of measuring antioxidant capacities in this project, the calices showed an acceptable antioxidant activity. Thus, H. sabdariffa L. (sabdariffa) may be suggested as a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industry.


Article Title [فارسی]

فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی، ترکیبات پلی فنولی و همبستگی بین آنها در کاسبرگ گیاه چای ترش

Authors [فارسی]

  • حکیمه علومی 1
  • شهریار شاکری 2
  • مجید بهزادی 3
1 Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
3 Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Kerman Center, Kerman, Iran
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف: عصاره کاسبرگ چای ترش غنی از ترکیبات آنتی اکسیدانی طبیعی می‌باشد. در این پژوهش بررسی همبستگی فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی و ترکیبات فنولی گیاه چای ترش مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. روش تحقیق: محتوای ترکیبات فنولی کل، فلاونوئیدها و آنتوسیانین ها بصورت اسپکتروفتومتری بررسی شد. فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز و پروکسیداز در میلی گرم پروتئین محاسبه شد. فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی عصاره بر اساس روش فسفومولیبدات، درصد مهارDPPH و قدرت احیا فریک مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نتایج و بحث: کاسبرگ چای ترش غنی از ترکیبات فنولی، فلاونوئیدها و آنتوسیانین می‌باشد. فعالیت کاتالاز و پراکسیداز معادل 13/3 و 05/0 واحد در میلی گرم پروتئین بود. بر اساس روش DPPH فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی عصاره کاسبرگ بسیار بالا می‌باشد. آزمون همبستگی بین پارامترهای مورد بررسی انجام شد. نتایج همبستگی وجود رابطه بین محتوای ترکیبات فنولی، فلاونوئیدها، آنتوسیانین‌ها و ظرفیت انتی اکسیدانی کاسبرگ گیاه چای ترش را در سطح احتمال 5%  تایید می‌کند. توصیه‌های کاربردی: عصاره کاسبرگ چای ترش غنی از ترکیبات آنتی اکسیدانی شامل ترکیبات فنولی، فلاونوئیدها و آنتوسیانین می‌باشد. براساس روش های سنجش ظرفت آنتی اکسیدانی، کاسبرگ‌ها فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی قابل قبولی دارند. بنابراین، عصاره این گیاه بعنوان منبع طبیعی ترکیبات اکسیدان قابل استفاده در صنایع غذایی و داروی گیاهی معرفی می‌گردد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آنتوسیانین
  • چای ترش
  • فلاونوئیدها
  • ترکیبات فنولی
  • آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان
Aebi, H. 1984. Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105: 121-26.
Ali, B.H., Wabel, N.A., Blunden, G. 2005. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytotherapy Research, 19: 369-75.
Balasundram, N., Sundram, K., Samman, S. 2006. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chemistry, 99: 191-203.
Begmeier, D., Berres, P.H.D., Filippi, D., Bilibio, D., Bettiol, V.R., Priamo, W.L. 2014. Extraction of total polyphenols from hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and waxweed/‘sete-sangrias’(Cuphea carthagenensis) and evaluation of their antioxidant potential. Acta Scientiarum Technology, 36: 545-51.
Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-54.
Da-Costa-Rocha, I., Bonnlaender, B., Sievers, H., Pischel, I., Heinrich, M. 2014. Hibiscus sabdariffa L.–A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chemistry, 165: 424-43.
El-Boraie, F., Gaber, A., Abdel-Rahman, G. 2009. Optimizing irrigation schedule to maximize water use efficiency of Hibiscus sabdariffa under Shalatien conditions. World Journal Agricultural Science, 5: 504-14.
Farombi, E.O., Fakoya, A. 2005. Free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic activities of natural phenolic compounds in dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Molecular Nutrition & food Research, 49: 1120-28.
Gao, X., Ohlander, M., Jeppsson, N., Björk, L., Trajkovski, V. 2000. Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 1485-90.
Heim, K.E., Tagliaferro, A.R., Bobilya, D.J. 2002. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13: 572-84.
Hirunpanich, V., Utaipat, A., Morales, N.P., Bunyapraphatsara, N., Sato, H., Herunsalee, A. et al. 2005. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.(Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28: 481-84.
Islam, M., Islam, A., Islam, F.Fakir, M. 2008. Effect of Planting Date on Canopy Characters and Capsule Production in Hibiscus sabdariffa (var. sabdariffa) Ground in Boundaries of Rice Field. Journal of Agronomy for Environment, 2: 1-6.
Khurana, S., Piche, M., Hollingsworth, A., Venkataraman, K., Tai, T. 2013. Oxidative stress and cardiovascular health: therapeutic potential of polyphenols 1. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 91: 198-212.
Kim, Y.J., Lee, J.-H.Kim, S.-J. 2013. Cultivation characteristics and flavonoid contents of wormwood (Artemisia montana Pamp.). Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 2: 117.
Lako, J., Trenerry, V.C., Wahlqvist, M., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Sotheeswaran, S.Premier, R. 2007. Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. Food Chemistry, 101: 1727-41.
Mak, Y.W., Chuah, L.O., Ahmad, R., Bhat, R. 2013. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) and Cassia (Senna bicapsularis L.) flower extracts. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 25: 275-82.
Maksimović, Z., Malenčić, Đ., Kovačević, N. 2005. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresource Technology, 96: 873-77.
Mancinelli, A.L.Rabino, I. 1985. Effectiveness of intermittent light treatments on anthocyanin synthesis in dark-grown and light-pretreated seedlings. Plant Physiology, 78: 203-06.
Mariod, A., Ibrahim, R., Ismail, M.Ismail, N. 2012. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seedcake. Grasas y Aceites, 63: 167-74.
Obouayeba, A., Djyh, N., Diabate, S., Djaman, A., N’guessan, J., Kone, M. et al. 2014. Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) petal extracts. Research Journal Of Pharmcology Biology Chemistry Science, 5: 1453-65.
Odabasoglu, F., Aslan, A., Cakir, A., Suleyman, H., Karagoz, Y., Halici, M. et al. 2004. Comparison of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of three lichen species. Phytotherapy Research, 18: 938-41.
Oyaizu, M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction--antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Eiyogaku zasshi= Japanese Journal of Nutrition,
Plewa, M.J., Smith, S.R., Wagner, E.D. 1991. Diethyldithiocarbamate suppresses the plant activation of aromatic amines into mutagens by inhibiting tobacco cell peroxidase. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 247: 57-64.
Prieto, P., Pineda, M., Aguilar, M. 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269: 337-41.
Proestos, C., Lytoudi, K., Mavromelanidou, O.K., Zoumpoulakis, P., Sinanoglou, V.J. 2013. Antioxidant capacity of selected plant extracts and their essential oils. Antioxidants, 2: 11-22.
Rezaei, M., Bagherian, F. 2009. Influence of planting date and sulfur coating in seed coating solution (SCS) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds: physiological traits. Physiology, 4: 917-23.
Salem, M.Z., Olivares-Pérez, J., Salem, A. 2014. Studies on biological activities and phytochemicals composition of Hibiscus species-A review. Life Science Journal, 11:
Sánchez‐Moreno, C., Larrauri, J.A., Saura‐Calixto, F. 1999. Free radical scavenging capacity of selected red, rose and white wines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79: 1301-04.
Škrovánková, S., Mišurcová, L., Machu, L. 2012. 3 Antioxidant Activity and Protecting Health Effects of Common Medicinal Plants. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 67: 75.
Tomás‐Barberán, F.A.Espin, J.C. 2001. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81: 853-76.
Tsai, P.-J., McIntosh, J., Pearce, P., Camden, B., Jordan, B.R. 2002. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract. Food Research International, 35: 351-56.
Tseng, T.-H., Kao, E.-S., Chu, C.-Y., Chou, F.-P., Wu, H.-W.L., Wang, C.-J. 1997. Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 35: 1159-64.
Voon, H.C., Bhat, R., Rusul, G. 2012. Flower extracts and their essential oils as potential antimicrobial agents for food uses and pharmaceutical applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11: 34-55.
Yang, L., Gou, Y., Zhao, T., Zhao, J., Li, F., Zhang, B. et al. 2014. Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 4063-68.
Zengin, G., Aktumsek, A., Guler, G.O., Cakmak, Y.S.Yildiztugay, E. 2011. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extract and fatty acid composition of Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. hayekiana Wagenitz. Records in Natural Products, 5: 123-32.