Phytochemical investigation of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of (Apiaceae) in Central Zagros, Iran

Document Type: Original article


1 Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran

2 Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran

3 MSc of Range Management, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran


Background & Aim:Dorema   ammoniacum D. Don. (ammoniac plant) belongs to   Apiaceae family and Dorema genus. It is one of the most important   endemic medicinal plants in its family which grows in the arid and semi-arid   areas in the regions of Iran and some of the Asian countries such as   Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. This study was carried out   with aim of the extraction and identification of constituents of D. ammoniacum   D. Don. in   the western areas of Isfahan province, Iran. Experimental: For this purpose, after the plant   collecting in the mentioned area its target organs namely stem and leaf were   separated, air dried, milled and weighted in the certain amount. Then the   essential oil of the plant was isolated by hydrodistillationmethod   and analyzed by GC/MS device.
Results: The results indicated that major components were Limonene   (49.18%), Neophytadiene   (10.21%), beta Caryophyllene   (3.54%), Phytol (2.61%) and Neryl acetone (1.46%).  Recommended applications/industries: Several therapeutic cases have been reported in traditional medicine and currently in contemporary medicine for Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. that some of them are include the treatment of cough, vasodilator, anti-flatulence and anti-microbial. Also, the mentioned plant has varied applications in the fields of foods, cosmetic and detergent industries.  


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی فیتوشیمیایی روغن های فرار برگ و ساقه گیاه اوشق (چتریان) در زاگرس مرکزی، ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • فاخته زندپور 1
  • محمدرضا وهابی 1
  • علیرضا علافچیان 2
  • حمیدرضا فرهنگ 3
1 Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran
2 Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran
3 MSc of Range Management, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran
Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه و هدف: اوشق (وشا) به خانواده چتریان و جنس دورما تعلق دارد. یکی از گیاهان دارویی انحصاری در خانواده چتریان است که در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک برخی نواحی ایران و بعضی کشور‌های آسیایی مانند ترکمنستان، افغانستان، پاکستان و هندوستان رشد می‌کند. این مطالعه با هدف استخراج و شناسایی مواد موثره گیاه اوشق در مناطق غربی استان اصفهان، ایران انجام گرفت. روش تحقیق: برای این منظور پس از جمع‌آوری گیاه در منطقه مذکور اندام‌های هدف آن یعنی ساقه و برگ جدا، هواخشک، آسیاب و در مقادیر مشخصی توزین شدند. سپس روغن فرار گیاه توسط روش تقطیر با آب جداسازی شد و با استفاده از دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی طیف سنج جرمی تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج و بحث: نتایج نشان داد که ترکیبات عمده لیمونن (49/18 %)، نئوفایتیدین (10/21 %)، بتا کاریوفیلن (3/54 %)، فیتول (2/61 %) و نریل استون ( 1/46 %) بودند. توصیه کاربردی/ صنعتی: موارد درمانی متعددی در طب سنتی و اخیراً در طب مدرن برای اوشق گزارش شده است که بعضی از آنها شامل درمان سرفه، ضد انبساط عروق، ضد نفخ و ضد میکروبی می باشند. همچنین گیاه مذکور کاربرد های متنوع در زمینه های صنایع غذایی، آرایشی و پاک کنندگی دارد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اوشق
  • اسانس
  • GC/MS
  • اصفهان
  • ایران
Adams, R.P. 2007. Identification of Essential oils Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, fourth ed. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, USA.

Amin, G.R. 1991. Popular medicinal plants of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Medicinal Plants Iran. PP 262.

Appendino, G., Nano, G.M., Viterbo, D., Munno, G.D., Cisero, M., Palmisano, G. and Aragno, M. 1991. Ammodoremin, a epimeric mixture of prenylated chromandiones from ammoniacum. Helvetica Chimica Acta,74: 495–500.

Arnone, A., Nasini, G., De Pava., O.V. and Cammarda, L. 1991. Isolation and structure elucidation of doremine A, a new spiro-sesquiterpenoidic chroman-2,4-dione from ammoniac gum resin. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana Journal, 121: 383–386.

Batooli, H., Haghir Ebrahimabadi, A., Mahmodi, B. and Mazochi, A. 2014. Comparison of essential oil chemical composition of vegetative and reproductive organs of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. in Shahsavaran Kashan, Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30: 746–755.

Bauer, K., Garbe, D., and Surburg, H. 2001. Common fragrance and flavor materials, 4th Ed.

Wiley–VCH verlag GmbH, Germany.

Bown, D. 1995. Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, UK.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 1983. The British Herbal and Medical Association, West Yorkshire, UK. PP 24.

British Pharmacopoeia. 1993. Vol. 2, HMSO, London. UK, PP. A165–169.

Bussau, A. 1999. Soluble Nitrogen Containing Compounds in Eucalyptus Globulus (Labill.) Foliage: Effect of Site, Season and Nutrient Addition. University of Melbourne, Australia.  PP 244.

Carretero, M.E., Lopez Perez, J.L., Abad, M.J., Bermejo, P., Tillet, S., Israel, A. and Noguera, P.B. 2008. Preliminary study of the anti-inflammatory activity of hexane extract and fractions from Bursera simaruba (Linneo) Sarg, (Burseraceae) leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116: 11–15.

Chevallier, A. 2001. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley, UK. PP 285.

Connolly, J.D., and Hill, R.A. 1996, Terpenoids. Chappman and Hall Company, UK, PP. 291–356.

Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia. 1998. European Pharmacopoeia: Supplement. Council of Europe.

Curtis, T., and Williams, D.G. 2001. Introduction to Perfumery. Micelle Press, USA.

Curzons, A.D., Constable, D.C. and Cunningham, V.L. 1999. Solvent selection guide: a guide to the integration of environmental, health and safety criteria into the selection of solvents. Clean Products and Processes, 1: 82–90.

Daines, A., Payne, R., Humphries, M. and Abell, A. 2003. The Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Vitamin K and Vitamin K Analogues. Current Organic Chemistry, 7: 1625–1634.

Da Silva, S.L., Figueiredo, P.M. and Yano, T. 2007. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves. European Journal of Pharmacology, 576: 180–188.

Di Sotto, A., Evandri, M.G. and Mazzanti, G. 2008. Antimutagenic and mutagenic activities of some terpenes in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Mutation Research, 635: 130–133.

Evans, W.C. 1996. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. 14th ed.; W.B. Saunders Company, UK.

Farhang, H.R., Vahabi, M.R. and Allafchian, A.R. 2015. Chemical compositions of the essential oil of Gundelia tournefortii L.(Asteraceae) from Central Zagros, Iran, Journal of Herbal Drugs, 6: 227–233.

Gilbert, D.L., Pyzik, P.L. and Freeman, J.M. 2000. The ketogenic diet: seizure control correlates better with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate than urine ketones. Journal of Child Neurology, 15: 787–790.

Grieve, M. 1971. A Modern Herbal. Vol. 1, Peter Smith Publisher, USA.

Howes, F. 1950. Age-old resins of the Mediterranean region and their uses. Economic Botany, 4: 307–316.

Huttenlocher, P.R., Wilbourn, A.J. and Signore, J.M. 1971. Medium chain triglyceride as a therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. Neurology, 21: 1097–1103.

Irvani, N., Solouki, M., Omidi, M., Zare, A.Z. and Shahnazi, S. 2010. Callus induction and plant regeneration in Dorem ammoniacum D. an endangered medicinal plant. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 100: 293-300.

Langenheim, J.H. 2003. Plant resins: chemistry, evolution, ecology, and ethnobotany. Timber Press, USA.

Legault, J. and Pichette, A. 2007. Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 59: 1643–1647.

Mann, J., Davidson, R.S., Hobbs, J.B., Banthorpe, D.V. and Harborne, J.b. 1994. Natural products: Their Chemistry and Biological Significance. Longman Group, UK. 

Mansouji Avval, M., Sajjadifar, S. and Sadeghei Takallo, M. 2013. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Flowers, Stems and Roots of Dorema ammoniacum D.Don. from Iran. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4: 640–644.

Mc Ginty, D., Letizia, C.S. and Api, A.M. 2010. Fragrance material review on phytol. Food and Chemical Toxicology,48: 59–63.

Mc Lafferty, F.W. 2013. Wiley registry of mass spectral data. tenth ed. Mass Spectrometry Library Search System Bench-Top/PBM, New York, USA.

Mendiola, J.A., Santoyo, S., Cifuentes, A., Reglero, G., Ibanez, E. and Senorans, F.J. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of sub- and supercritical CO2 extracts of the green alga Dunaliella salina. Journal of Food Protection, 71: 2138–2143.

Ming Lin, F., Neil, E., Marsh, G. and Nina Lin, X. 2015. Recent progress in hydrocarbon biofuel synthesis: pathways and enzymes. Chinese chemical letters, 26: 431–434.

Mozaffarian, V.A. 1996. Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. Farhang Moaser Publication Iran, PP. 145.

Omid Beigi, R. 2000. The production and processing of medicinal plants. Fekr Ruose Publication, Iran.    

Parsa, A. 1959. Medicinal plants and drugs of plant origin in Iran III. Plant Food for Human Nutrition, 6: 137–156.

Pengely, A. 1996. The constituents of medicinal plants. Allen and Unwin, Australia.

Rajani, M., Saxena, M.N., Ravishankara, N., Desai, N. and Padh, H. 2002. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Ammoniacum Gum from Dorema ammoniacum. Pharmaceutical Biology, 40: 534–541.

Rechinger, K. H. 1980. Flora Iranica. Umbelliferae; Akademische Drucku. Verlags Antalt Graz, Austria. PP. 234.

Sajjadi, S.E., Ghassemi, N. and Mohammadzamani, P. 2007. Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. Leaf, an Iranian Resinous Plant. Revue des regions Arides, 1: 194–197.

Skold, M., Karlberg, A.T., Matura, M. and Borge, A. 2006. The fragrance chemical β-caryophyllene air oxidation and skin sensitization. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44: 538–545.

Stojanovic, G., Palic, R., Alagic, S. and Zekovic, Z. 2000. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and CO2 extracts of semi-oriental tobacco Otlja. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 15: 335–338.

Tarmas, S. 1995. Electrophilic Aromatic Thallation of Nitrogen containing Compounds. California State University, Fresno, USA. 

Worwood, V.A. 1991. The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy. New World Library Publication California, USA.  

Yassa, N., Rustaie, A., Tavakoli, S., Delnavazi, M.R. and Batooli, H. 2014. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils and extracts of Dorema ammoniacum roots and aerial parts, Research Journal of Pharmacognosy, 1: 11–18.

Yousefzadi, M., Heidari, M., Akbarpour, M., Mirjalili, M.H., Zeinali, A. and Parsa, M. 2011a. In vitroCytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 7: 511–514.

Yousefzadi, M., Mirjalili, M.H., Alnajar, N., Zeinali, A. and Parsa, M. 2011b. Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. fruit from Iran. Journal of Serbian Chemical Society, 76: 857–863.

Zarshenas, M.M., Arabzadeh, A., Tafti, M.A., Kordafshari, G., Zargaran, A. and Mohagheghzadeh, A. 2013.  Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine. Galen Medical Journal, 1: 78–83.