Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia virgata Jacq

Document Type : Original article


1 Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Toxicology Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

4 Department of Horticulture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

5 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran

6 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran



Background & Aim:The genus Salvia (commonly known as sage) is a broad genus belonging to the family Lamiaceae. This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of two Salvia species.
Experimental: The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia virgata Jacq, cultivated in Estahban (Fars, South Iran), was studied by means of GC-MSanalyses. Antimicrobial activity was tested against a panel of microorganisms including one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC NO. 1435) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and three fungal strain (Alternaria alternata PTCC NO. 5224, Penicillium funiculosum PTCC NO. 5301 and P. funiculosum PTCC NO. 5169) using the disk diffusion and agar-well diffusion methods and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) technique.
Results: In all, 57 compounds were identified, 42 for S. officinalis, accounting for 98.94% ofthe total oil, 29 for S. virgata (98.81%). The major components of S. officinalis essential oil were α-thujone (37.18%), 1,8-cineole (12.71%), β-thujone (9.10%) and the major components of S. virgata essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (30.23%), β-caryophyllene (22.63%), sabinene (11.82%). The antimicrobial activity of the total essential oil evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method, the results showed that the highest active against S. epidermidis and also the least active against E. coli. Inhibition of growth was tested by the disk diffusion method, the results showed that essential oil of S. officinalis and S. virgata were highest active against E. coli and P. funiculosum (PTCC NO. 5301), respectively. Also the least active against A. alternata.
Recommended applications/industries: The results showed thatS. officinalis oil had higher antimicrobial activity compare to S. virgata


Article Title [فارسی]

ترکیبات شیمیایی و فعالیت ضد میکروبی اسانس (Salvia officinalis L) و (Salvia virgata Jacq)

Authors [فارسی]

  • احمدرضا گلپرور 1
  • امین هادی پناه 2
  • محمدمهدی قیصری 3
  • داوود نادری 4
  • شیما رحمانیان 5
  • مجتبی خرمی 6
1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد خوراسگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران
2 گروه علوم باغی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
3 مرکز تحقیقات سم شناسی، واحد خوراسگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران
4 گروه باغبانی، واد خوراسگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران
5 گروه علوم باغی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران
6 گروه علوم باغی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه و هدف : (Salvia officinalis L.) و (Salvia virgata Jacq) گیاهان چند ساله و معطر از خانواده نعناع (Lamiaceae) می­باشد. هدف از این تحقیق شناسایی ترکیبات شیمیاییو فعالیت ضد میکروبی دو گونه Salvia بود.
روش تحقیق: قسمتهای هوایی S. officinalis و S. virgata  به وسیله دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی متصل به طیف سنج جرمی (GC/MS) مورد تجزیه و شناسایی قرار گرفت. خاصیت ضد باکتریایی با استفاده از سویه باکتری­های استاندارد شامل Staphylococcus epidermidisوEscherichia coliو قارچ های Alternaria alternataوPenicillium funiculosumدردو روش دیسک دیفیوژن و چاهک گذاریمورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج بدست آمده از این تحقیق نشان داد که 42 ترکیب در اسانس S. officinalis و 29 ترکیب در اسانس S. virgata  به  ترتیب شناسایی شد. ترکیبات اصلی اسانس S. officinalis شامل α-thujone  (18/37%)، 1,8-cineole  (71/12%)، β-thujone  (10/9%)، camphene (54/5%) و viridiflorol  (33/5%) شناسایی شد. و ترکیبات اصلی اسانس S. virgata  شامل caryophyllene oxide (23/30%)، β-caryophyllene (63/22%)، sabinene (82/11%)، 1-octan-3-ol (64/6%)، thujene (28/6%) و terpinene-4-ol (25/5%) شناسایی شد. اسانس  S. officinalisو S. virgata   در روش چاهک گذاری بیشترین ویژگی ضد میکروبی را برای S. epidermidisنشان داده و کمترین اثر را بر E. coli داشت. در روش دیسک دیفیوژن  بیشترین ویژگی ضد میکروبی اسانس  S. officinalisو S. virgata   بر ضد  E. coliوP. funiculosum (PTCC NO. 5301) بوده و کمترین اثر را بر A. alternate  نشان داد.
توصیه کاربردی/صنعتی: در مجموع اسانس S. officinalisخاصیت ضد میکروبی بیشتری نسبت به گیاهS. virgata   نشان داد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • Salvia officinalis L
  • Salvia virgata Jacq
  • ترکیبات شیمیایی
  • خاصیت ضد میکروبی
Adams, R.P. 2007. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometery, 4th edition (Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL) 456.
Akin, M., Demirci, B., Bagci, Y. and Baser, K.H.C. 2010. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of two endemic Salvia sp. from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 2322-2327.
Bachir Raho, G., Benattouche, Z., Bevilacqua, A., Corbo, M.R., Sinigaglia, M. and Pignatiello, S. 2016. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Salvia officinalis L on some Bacteria and Yeast. Journal of Biotechnology Research, 2(5): 31-35.
British Pharmacopoeia. 1988. British pharmacopoeia, vol. 2. HMSO, London, pp. 137–138.
Carson, C.F., Mee, B.J. and Riley, T.V. 2002. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46: 1914-1920.
Ceylan, E. and Fung, D.Y.C. 2004. Antimicrobial Activity of Spices. Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology, 12: 1-55.
Delamare, A.P.L. 2007. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L. cultivated in South Brazil. Food Chemistry, 100. 603-608.
Farhat, M.B., Jordan, M.J. and Chaouech-Hamada, R. 2009. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of Tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57: 10349-10356.
Fellah, S., Diouf, P.N. and Petrissans, M. 2006. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Salvia officinalis L. oil from two culture sites in Tunisia. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18(5): 553-556.
Friedman, M., Henika, R.P. and Mandrell, E.R. 2002. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection, 65: 1545-1560.
Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Jahanbazi, P., Enteshari, S., Malekpoor, F. and Hamedi, B. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade, 62(3): 633-642.
Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Taheri, M., Raisee, M., Bahrami, H.R. and Abdizadeh, R. 2009. In vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts on Saprolegnia parasitica from cutaneous lesions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. The Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 7: 94-96.
Golparvar A.R. and Hadipanah, A. 2013. Identification of the components of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Isfahan climatic conditions. Electronic Journal of Biology, 9(2): 42-45.
Hadipanah, A. and Khorrami, M. 2016. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from two Thymus species. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 6(4): 211-217.
Hara-Kudo, Y., Kobayashi, A., Sugita-Konishi, Y. and Kondo, K. 2004. Antibacterial activity of plants used in cooking for aroma and taste. Journal of Food Protection,67: 2820–2824.
Javidnia, K., Miri, R., Soltani, M., Gholami, M. and Khosravi, A. 2008. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of six Iranian Salvia species. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 44(5): 654–658.
Klaus, A., Beatovic, D., Niksic, M. Jelacic, S. and Petrovic, T. 2009. Antibacterial activity of aromatic plants essential oils from Serbia against the Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(2): 95-104.
Kozlowska, M., Laudy A.E., Przybyl, J., Ziarno, M. and Majewska, E. 2015. Chmical composition and antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica-Drug Research, 72(4): 757-767.
Lu, Y. and Foo, L.Y. 2002. Polyphenolics of Salvia. A review. Phytochemistry, 59: 114-140.
Naghibi, F., Mosaddegh, M., Mohammadi Motamed, M. and Ghorbani, A. 2010. Labiatae family in folk medicine in Iran: From ethnobotany to pharmacology. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4: 63-79.
Raut, J.S. and Karuppayil, S.M. 2014. A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils, Industrial Crops and Products, 62: 250–264.
Said-Al Ahl, H., Hussein, M.S., Gendy, A.S.H. and Tkachenko, K. 2015. Quality of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Essential OilGrown in Egypt.International Journal of Plant Science and Ecology, 1(4): 119-123.
Sefidkon, F. and Mirza, M. 1999. Chemical composition of the essential oils of two Salvia species from Iran, Salvia virgata Jacq. and Salvia syriaca L. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14(1): 45-46.
Skaltsa, H.D., Demetzos, C., Lazari, D. and Sokovic, M. 2003. Essential oil analysis and antimicrobial activity of eight Stachys species from Greece. Phytochemistry, 64(3): 743-752.
Sokovic, M., Glamoclija, J., Marin, P.D., Brkic, D. and Van Griensven, L.J.L. 2010. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an In Vitro model. Molecules, 15: 7532-7546.
Tenore, G.C., Ciampaglia, R., Arnold, N.A., Piozzi, F., Napolitano, F., Rigano, D. and Senatore, F. 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Salvia lanigera from Cyprus. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(1): 238-243.
Velickovic, D., Randjelovic, N. and Ristic, M. 2003. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extracts obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia officinalis L. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 68(1): 17-24.
Wise, M.L., Savage, T.J., Katahira, E. and Croteau, R. 1998. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of (+)-sabinene synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273(24): 14891-14899.