The effect of foliar application of chitosan on yield and essential oil of savory (Saturejaisophylla L.) under salt stress

Document Type: Original article

Authors

Department of Biology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Background & Aim:Satureja Isophylla L.  is a medicinal herb which belongs to the family Lamiacease. Salinity affects the growth, the quality and quantity of essential oils of medicinal plants. Chitosan is also considered as a biological elicitor which plays a role in improving production of secondary metabolites of medicinal herbs. The current project was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of chitosan on growth indices and the quality and quantity of essential oil under salt stress (salinity).
Experimental:In this study, savory was treated by chitosan at three levels (0, 0.2 and 0.4 g/l) and NaCl with three concentrations (0, 50, and 100mM). After a two-week treatment, the dry weight of the root and the stem, the herb height, and the number of leaves and lateral branches were measured. In addition, the composition of the herb's essential oil was analyzed and identified by GC/MS.
Results: The results showed that salt stress decreased the dry weight of the root and stem, the herb height, and its number of leaves and lateral stems. Chitosan treatment could amend this reduction. Sodium chloride mutual treatment with the concentration of 50 mM as well as that of chitosan with the concentration of 0.2 g/l had a significant effect on the increase of the yield and quality of the essential oil. The results of the GC/MS analysis showed that 14 main compositions were detected in the essential oil, in which the major amount belonged to P-Cymene (3.13%), Y-Terpinene (28.97%) and Caryacrol ( 59.64%). The findings indicated that the utmost amount of Carvacrol was obtained by the increment of salt stress at the salt concentration of 100 mM and with chitosan concentration of 0.4 g/l; moreover, the greatest amount of P-Cymene and Y-Terpinene was obtained by the increment of salt stress with salt concentration of 50 mM and chitosan concentration of 0.4 g/l.
Recommended applications/industries: Chitosan is recommended to be exploited in industry as it has moderating effects against salt stress in addition of the increment influence on the certain secondary metabolites of savory.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر محلول پاشی با کیتوزان بر عملکرد و اسانس گیاه مرزه (Satureja isophella L) تحت تنش شوری

Authors [Persian]

  • سمیه صالحی
  • زهرا رضایتمند
Department of Biology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه و هدف:گیاه مرزه Satureja isophella L.)) یکی از گیاهان دارویی متعلق به خانواده نعنا است. تنش شوری در رشد و نمو و کیفیت و کمیت اسانس گیاهان دارویی اثر دارد. نقش کیتوزان نیز به عنوان یک الیسیتور زیستی در بهبود تولید مواد ثانویه گیاهان دارویی عنوان شده است. تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر غلظت های مختلف کیتوزان بر برخی شاخص های رشد و کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گیاه مرزه تحت تنش شوری انجام گرفت.
روش تحقیق: در این تحقبق گیاه مرزه تحت تیمارهای کیتوزان در سه سطح (4/0، 2/0 و 0) درصد و تیمار با آب نمک (Nacl) در غلظت های (100، 50 و 0) میلی مولار قرار گرفت. پس از دو هفته از تیمار دهی وزن خشک ریشه و ساقه و ارتفاع گیاه و تعداد برگ و شاخه های جانبی گیاه اندازه گیری شد، همچنین تجزیه و شناسایی اجزاءاسانس گیاه بااستفاده از دستگاه GC/MS انجام گرفت.
نتایج وبحث: نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که تنش شوری باعث کاهش وزن خشک ریشه و ساقه و ارتفاع گیاه و تعداد برگ و شاخه های جانبی گیاه می شود و تیمار کیتوزان می تواند این کاهش را تعدیل نماید. تیمار متقابل کلرید سدیم در غلظت 50 میلی مولار وهمچنین کیتوزان در غلظت 2/0 در صد اثر معنی داری بر روی افزایش حجم و کیفیت اسانس در گیاه مرزه دارد. که با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از آنالیز GC/MS 14 ترکیب اصلی در اسانس تشخیص داده شد که بیشترین ترکیبات P-Cymene به میزان 13/3 ، Y-Terpinene به میزان 97/28 و Caryacrolبه میزان 64/59 بدست آمده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که با افزایش تنش شوری در غلظت 100 میلی مولار نمک و غلظت 4/0 کیتوزان بیشترین میزان کارواکرول و در غلظت 50 میلی مولار نمک و 4/0 کیتوزان بیشترین میزان P-Cymene و Y-Terpinene بدست آمده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آنتی اکسیدان
  • کیتوزان
  • شوری
  • مرزه
Ashraf, M.,Akhtar, N. 2004. Influence of salt stress ongrowth ion accumulation and seed oil content in sweetfennel. BiologiaPlantarum, 48: 461-464.

Ashraf, M.,Orooj, A. 2006. Salt stress effects on growth, ion accumulation and seed oil concentration in an arid zone traditional medicinal plantajowan (Trachysprmumammi L.) Sprague). Journal of Arid Environmental, 64: 209-220.

Babaee, K.,AminiDehaghi, M.,ModaresSanavi, SAM.,Jabbari R.2010.Water deficit effect onmorphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinaland Aromatic Plants, 26: 239-251.

Cheng, X., Zhou, U.,Cui ,X. 2006. Improvement of phenylethanoid glycosides biosynthesis in) Cistanchedeserticola(cell suspension cultures by chitosan elicitor. Biological Journal, 121: 253–260.

Conrath, U., Domard, A., Kauss, H. 1989. Chitosan-elicited synthesis of callose and of coumarin derivatives in parsley cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Report, 8: 152-155.

Dow, A.I.,  Cline, T.A. ,  Horning, E.V. 1981. Salt Tolerance Studies on Irrigated Mint

Bulletin of Agriculture Research Center, Washington State University, Pullman (1981), p. 11

El-Keltawi, NE., Croteau R. 1987. Influence of foliar applied cytokinins on growth and essential oil content of several members of the lamiaceae. Phytochemistry 26(4): 891-895.

Esma'ilzadeh Behabadi, S., Sharifi, M. 2013. Increase secondary metabolite production plants using biological Alysytvrhay. Journal of Cells and Tissues,20:119-128.

Galshi, S.,Soltani, A. 2002. Evaluation growth, nitrogen fixation and salinity tolerance of five varieties of Subterranean clover. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Gorgan, 18:71- 83.

Hassani, A. 2003. Water and sodium chloride salinity stress on morphological and physiological properties of basil. PhD. thesis. College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres.

Hirano, S. 1988. The activation of plant cells and their self defence function against pathogens in connection with chitosan. Nippon NogeikagakuKaishi.(in Japanese with English summary). 62:293-295

Heng, YC., Xavier, F., Lars, P., Christensen, GK.2012. ChitosanOligosaccharides Promote the Content ofPolyphenols in Greek Oregano (Origanumvulgare ssp. hirtum). Journal.Agricalture. Food Chemistry,60:136−143.

Ionkova, I.2007. Biotechnological Approaches for the Production of Lignans. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 1: 427-438.

Kamkar, A.,Toriean, F .,AkhondzadehBasti, A.,Misaghi, A.,Shariatifar, N. 2013. Study the chemical composition of essential oils Savory (Saturejahensis L.) and compared the antioxidant activity of the extract and alcohol. Journal of Veterinary Research, 20:183-190.

Kaya, Z.2008. Effect of varing nitrogen doses on yield, yield components and artemisinin content of (Artemisia annuaL.).Ind Crop Prod, 27:60-64.

Kim H. 2005. Characterization of bioactive compounds in essential oils, fermented anchovysauce, and edible plants, and, induction of phytochemicals from edible plants using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan. PhD Thesis Clemson University. USA. ،pp: 178

Kowalski, B., Jimenez, F., Herrera, l.,Agramontepenalver, D. 2006. Application of soluble  chitosan in vitro and in the greenhouse To increase yield and seed quality of potato minitobers. Potato Research,49:167-176.

Lee, Y., Kim, Y., Kim, S. 2005. Changes in the respiration, growth and vitamin c contentof soybean sprouts in response to chitosan of different molecular weights. Horticalture Science, 40:1333-1335.

Lee, Y., Kang, C., Lee, Y. 1999. Effects of chitosan on production and root control of soybean sprouts. Korean Journal of Crop Science, 44:368-372.

Larcher, W. 2001. Physioligical  plant ecology. Springer-VerlagVerlag Berlin Heidelberg  New York. Germany.

Mahdavi, B., ModaresSanvi, A., Aghaalikhani, M., Sharifi, M. 2011. The effect of different densities chitosan on seed germination and antioxidant sunflower under drought stress.Journal of Plant , 3:352- 365.

Naderi, S., Khajeh, H., Ahmadi, H. 2015. Characteristics of the authors The Effect of Chitosan on Some Morphological Indices in Lepidium sativum L. The First Conference of Medicinal Herbs and Herbal Medicines , Tehran, Center for the Sustainable Development of Science and Technology Farzin.

Namdeo, A. 2007.Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 1: 320-345.

Ozturk, A., Unlukara, A., Ipek, A. Gurbuz, B.  2004. Effects of Salt Stress and Water Deficit on

Plant Growth and Essential oil Content of Lemon Balm (Melissa officialis L.). Pakistan. Journal of. Botany. 36(4), 787-792.

Parida, A., Das, B. 2005.Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60: 324-349.

Putalun, W.,Luealon, W., De-Eknamkul, W., Tanaka, H.,Shoyama ,Y.2007. Improvement of artemisinin production by chitosan in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annuaL., Biotechnology,29: 1143- 1146.

Razmjoo, K., P. Heydarizadeh and M.R. Sabzalian. 2008. Effect of Salinity and Drought Stresses onGrowth Parameters and Essential oil Content of Matricaria chamomila. International  Journal of Agricultural and Biology., 10, 451-475.

Rostami Hir, M.,Galshys, A.,Soltani ,A.,Zeinali, A. 2004. The effect of NaCl on the growth of soybean varieties in eleven biological determination. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, 2: 127- 136.

Riaz, P., Surendra, S., Harting, H. 2007. Effect of irrigation intervals and splitted nitrogen on carvone content of Anethum graveolense L. grown in semi-arid region. Journal of Horticulture Environment Biotechnology, 41(4): 25-30.

Sarathchandra, R., Jaj, N .2004.A chitosan formulation Alexa induce downy mildew disease resistance and growth promotion in (pearl millet).Crop Protection, 23:881-888.

Safarnejad, A.,Salami, M.,Hamidi, H. 2007. Morphology Characterization of PP medicinal plants to salinity stress.Research and Development, 7: 123- 132.

Singla, R., Gary, N. 2005. In fluence of salinity on growth and yield attributes in chickpea cultivars.TurkishJornal of Agriculture and Forestry,29: 231-235.

Udagawa, Y. 1995. Some responses of dill (Anethum graveolens) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), grown in hydroponic, to the concentration of nutrient solution. Acta Horticultyre. 396: 203–210.

Uthairatanakij, A.,Teixeirada, A., Obsuwan, K. 2007. Chitosan for improving orchid production and quality. Orchid Science and Biotechnology, 1:1-5.

Vasconsuelo, A.,Giulietti, AM., Boland, R. 2004. Signal transduction events mediating chitosan stimulation of anthraquinone synthesis in Rubiatinctorum. Plant Science, 53: 405-413.

Wanichpongpan, P.,Suriyachan, k.,Chandrkrachang, S. 2001. Effect of chitosan on the growth of gerbera flower plant. Gerberajamesonii, 4:198-201.

Wei, S.,Zang, X.,Xue, J., Xiang, G. 2007. Effect of chitosan on seeds germination and seedling physiological property of wheat. Periodicals. Core Journals Biology Journal, 2:1-24.

Winter, Y., House, P.,Xiujuan, W.,Zhimeng, Z.,Yourong, S. 2001. Effect of chitosan on physiological activities in germinating seed and seedling leaves of maize. Periodicals Hebetic Vocational and Technical Teachers College Journal,4:1-15.

Winter, Y., House, P.,Zhimeng, Z.,Xiujuan, W.,Xiaojun, H. 2002. Germinating seed of peanut effects of chitosan on some physiological activity in germinating seed of peanut.Core Journals Journal of peanut science, 1: 1-31.

Zhang, Y .,Mian, MR.,Bouton, JH. 2006. Recent Molecular and Genomic Studies on Stress Tolerance of Forage and Turf Grasses. Crop Science, 46: 497–51