Investigation of main constituents of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil under sowing date and plant density in Mazandaran province

Document Type: Original article

Authors

1 M.Sc of Medicinal and Aromatic plant, Member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Giroft Branch, Giroft, Iran

2 Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacognosy , Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran

4 ِDepartment of Physiology and Plant Breeding, Member of Young Researchers Club, , Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran

Abstract

Background and aim: The genus Satureja L. (Lamiaceae) includes 12 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plant in Iran. Satureja species have economic and medicinal importance because of their high essential oil content. In addition, they are used as culinary herbs and in the food, perfume and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the quantity and quality yields of Satureja hortensis L. essential oils in Sari climatic condition.
Experimental: A field experiment was conducted in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources university by using of split-plot design in the base of randomized complete blocks with three replications in 2010. Main factors were three sowing dates (11 April, 22 April and 3 May) and sub factors were three plant density (15*35, 25*35 and 35*35cm). The plants were investigated in full flowering stage. Aerial parts of the plant were subjected to Hydro-distillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus to produce essential oil. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results and discussion: Sowing date had significant effect on essential oils content and dry shoot yield. The result of mean comparison showed that first sowing date had highest essential oils content (2.15) and delay in sowing time increased dry shoot yield significantly(p<0.05). The dry shoot yield (3023.1 and 2663.9 kg/h) at third and second sowing times was the highest. Plant density and interaction of sowing date and plant density had no significant effect on dry shoot yield and essential oils content. The results indicated that the essential oil yield and main essential oil components (carvacrol, γ-terpinene, ρ-cymene, α-terpinene and camphene) were not affected by sowing date and plant density.
Industrial and practical recommendations: Dry shoot yield, essential oil and main constituents of the essential oils of Satureja hortensis L. can be increased with good management and choose of suitable solutions.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی ترکیبات عمده اسانس گیاه دارویی مرزه (Satureja hortensis L.) تحت تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم در استان مازندران

Authors [Persian]

  • مهران محمدپور 1
  • بهلول عباس زاده 2
  • محمد آزاد بخت 3
  • جواد مینویی مقدم 4
1 کارشناس ارشد گیاهان دارویی، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران
2 مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، تهران، ایران
3 گروه فارماکوگنوزی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مازندران، ساری، ایران
4 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی و اصلاح گیاهان دارویی، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه و هدف: جنس Satureja متعلق به تیره Lamiaceae می­باشد که در ایران 12 گونه گیاه علفی یکساله و چند ساله دارد. گونه­ های جنس مرزه به دلیل میزان اسانس بالا و استفاده در آشپزی و صنایع غذایی، عطر و ادکلن، آرایشی و بهداشتی و داروسازی دارای اهمیت اقتصادی و پزشکی زیادی هستند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی اسانس گیاه دارویی مرزه (Satureja hortensis L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی منطقه ساری بود.
روش تحقیق: بدین منظور آزمایشی به صورت طرح اسپلیت پلات در قالب بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تاریخ کاشت (22 فروردین و 2، 13 اردیبهشت) و سه تراکم (35×15، 35×25 و 35×35) و با سه تکرار در سال 1389 در مزرعه دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری انجام شد. گیاهان در مرحله گلدهی کامل بررسی شدند. با استفاده از دستگاه کلونجر (تقطیر با آب) به مدت 3 ساعت اقدام به استخراج اسانس گیاه گردید. جداسازی و اندازه­ گیری ترکیبات اسانس توسط دستگاه GC و GC/MS صورت گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: اثر تاریخ کاشت بر درصد اسانس در سطح آماری 5 درصد و بر عملکرد خشک اندام هوایی در سطح آماری 1 درصد معنی­دار شد. بیشترین درصد اسانس (2/15) از تاریخ کاشت اول و حدأکثر عملکرد خشک اندام هوایی نیز (3023/1 و 2663/9 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به ترتیب از تاریخ­­های کاشت سوم و دوم بدست آمد. اثر تراکم و اثر متقابل تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بر درصد اسانس و عملکرد خشک اندام هوایی معنی­ دار نشد. اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم نیز بر عملکرد اسانس و هیچ یک از پنج ترکیب عمده اسانس (کارواکرول، گاما ترپیینن، پاراسیمن، آلفاترپینن و کامفن) معنی­ دار نشد.
توصیه کاربردی/ صنعتی: با مدیریت صحیح و انتخاب راهکارهای مناسب به ­زراعی می ­توان عملکرد اندام هوایی، میزان اسانس و ترکیبات عمده اسانس مرزه را افزایش داد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • مرزه (Satureja hortensis L.)
  • تاریخ کاشت
  • تراکم
  • اسانس
  • کارواکرول
  • گاماترپینن

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