Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Acorus calamus Leaves

Document Type : Review article


1 Deptt. Chemistry, C.B.S.H. G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145, Uttarakhand, India

2 Deptt. Chemistry, CBSH, G.B. Pant University Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar Uttarakhand

3 Department of chemistry, C.B.S.&H., G.B. Pant University of Ag. & Tech. Pantnagar, U.S. NAGAR (263145) Uttarakhand, India

4 Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India


Background and Aim: Acorus calamus L. is a native plant in India. It is a semi aquatic perennial plant of family Acoraceae having scented rhizomes and tapered reed like leaves. A. calamus also known as sweet flag in English and Bach in Hindi, is an annual, marshy, aromatic herbaceous plant measuring 80-100 cm in height with distinct leaves arising from the rhizomes. This study investigated the chemical diversity and antioxidant activity of leaf essential oil among different altitudinal regions of Uttarakhand.
Experimental: The essential oil composition of A. calamus (Araceae) leaves, collected from twenty different ecological niches of Uttarakhand, in India with oil yield ranged between 0.2-1.4 percent, were analyzed by GC/MS. DPPH assay were performed for determination of antioxidant activity of each oil.
Results & Discussion: The major component ranging 43.4-60.7% of the total oil was identified as β- asarone. The other predominant constituents were α-asarone (2.6-7.9%), shyobunone (3.4-6.3%) and Z- isoelemicin (3.2-5.4%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was studied by their ability to scavenge free radicals with different IC50 values (10.79-106.44 μg/ml) in comparison to standard antioxidant.
Industrial and practical recommendation: The vast chemical diversity of the herb essential oil and its antioxidant potential can be good natural source for herbal neutraceuticals and phenyl propanoids, the biologically important class of terpenoids.