Evaluation of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Shell by Proximate and Mineral Analyses

Document Type: Short communication

Authors

1 Montane Forest Research Station, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria

2 2Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 5054 Forest hill Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Abstract

Background & Aim: The leaves, fruit pulp and seeds of Cucurbita pepo are widely consumed as vegetables, and as food additives. They are used as condiments in some part of the country and also for their medicinal properties. This study, however investigated the fruit shell of Cucurbita pepo for its proximate and mineral composition using standard analytical methods.
Experimental: The fruit shell was separated from the pulp and seeds, washed, dried and homogenized. Proximate composition was determined using standard procedures; the sample was later digested with concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid for mineral analysis.
Results: The proximate composition showed that the fruit shell is rich in carbohydrates (44.60±0.06%) and crude fiber (28.53±0.08%). Protein, ash, moisture and fat were also present in considerable amounts. Minerals such as Na, K, P, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn were present at varying concentrations while Zn and Cr were not detected. Findings from this study which correlate with previous works show that C. pepo fruit shell is a natural repository of nutrients which play a range of important roles in different metabolisms of the body. 
Recommended applications/industries: The results showed that C. pepo fruit shell is nutritious and can be used in formulating feed for livestocks, hence its disposal should be discouraged.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی ترکیبات شیمیایی و املاح موجود در پوسته میوه Cucurbita pepo L

Authors [Persian]

  • اولیفونسو آدینی 1
  • آنه آدام 2
1 موسسه تحقیقات جنگلهای نیجریه
2 موسسه تحقیقات جنگلهای نیجریه
Abstract [Persian]

Background & Aim: The leaves, fruit pulp and seeds of Cucurbita pepo are widely consumed as vegetables, and as food additives. They are used as condiments in some part of the country and also for their medicinal properties. This study, however investigated the fruit shell of Cucurbita pepo for its proximate and mineral composition using standard analytical methods.
Experimental: The fruit shell was separated from the pulp and seeds, washed, dried and homogenized. Proximate composition was determined using standard procedures; the sample was later digested with concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid for mineral analysis.
Results: The proximate composition showed that the fruit shell is rich in carbohydrates (44.60±0.06%) and crude fiber (28.53±0.08%). Protein, ash, moisture and fat were also present in considerable amounts. Minerals such as Na, K, P, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn were present at varying concentrations while Zn and Cr were not detected. Findings from this study which correlate with previous works show that C. pepo fruit shell is a natural repository of nutrients which play a range of important roles in different metabolisms of the body. 
Recommended applications/industries: The results showed that C. pepo fruit shell is nutritious and can be used in formulating feed for livestocks, hence its disposal should be discouraged.

Keywords [Persian]

  • Cucurbitaceae
  • Cucurbita Pepo
  • fruit shell
  • mineral composition
  • Proximate analysis

Adebayo, O.R., Farombi, A.G. and Oyekanmi, A.M. 2013. Proximate, mineral and anti-Nutrient evaluation of Pumpkin Pulp (Cucurbita pepo). IOSR Journal of Applied chemistry, 4(5): 25-28.

Adeniyi, O. and Ariwoola, O. 2019. Comparative Proximate Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties grown in south-western Nigeria. International Annals of Science, 7(1): 1-5.

Ardabili, G.A., Farhoosh, R. and Khodaparast, M.H.H. 2011.  Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita pepo Subsp. pepo Var. Styriaka) Grown in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology,13: 1053-1063.

Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). 1990. Official method of analysis. 15th ed. Washington, DC. USA.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International: Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Casiday, R. and Frey, R. 2012.Blood, sweat and buffers: pH Regulation during exercise. Washington University. pp 1-12.

Elinge, C.M., Muhammad, A., Atiku, F.A., Itodo, A.U., Peni, I.J., Sanni, O.M. and Mbongo, A.N. 2012. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds extract. International Journal of Plant Research, 2(5): 146-150.

Fila, W.A., Itam, E.H., Johnson, J.T., Odey, M.O., Effiong, E.E., Dasofunjo, K. and Ambo, E.E. 2013. Comparative proximate composition of watermelon citrullus lanatus, squash Cucurbita pepo’l and rambutan Nephelium lappaceum. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2(1): 81-88.

Gupta, C.P. 2014. Role of Iron (Fe) in body. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(11): 38-46.

Healthline Media, 2019. Phosphorus in Your Diet. Available on Internet at: https://www.healthline.com/health/phosphorus-in-diet#too-little-phosphorus 

Iheanacho, K.M.E. and Udebuani, A.C. 2009. Nutritional composition of some leafy vegetables consumed in Imo state, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13(3): 35- 38.

Kaya, I. and Incekara, N. 2000. Contents of some wild plants species consumed as food in Aegean region. Turkish Journal of Weed Science, 3: 56-64.

Kew Science, 2017.  Plants of the world online. Available on Internet at: http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:292416-1.

Kwiri, R., Winini, C., Musengi, A., Misheck, M., Nyambi, C., Muredzi, P. and Malunga, A. 2014. Proximate composition of pumpkin gourd (Cucurbita pepo) seeds from Zimbabwe. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 3(4): 279 -283.

Mensah, J.K., Okoli, R.I., Ohaju-Obodo, J.O., Eifediyi, K. 2008. Phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 2304-2309.

Mohammed, A.A. 2004. Chemical Composition and Oil Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed kernels. Res. Bult. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Center, King Saud Univ., 129: 5-18.

Mohaammed, S.S., Paiko, Y.B., Mann, A., Ndamitso, M.M., Mathew, J.T. and Maaji, S. 2014. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional composition of Cucurbita maxima fruits parts. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research, 19: 37-49.

Obi, R.K., Nwanebu, F.C., Ndubuisi, U.U. and Orji, N.M. 2009. Antibacterial qualities and phytochemical screening of the oils of Curcubita pepo and Brassica nigra. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3950: 429- 432.

Ouattara, C.A.T., Somda, M.K., Moyen, R. and Traore, A.S. 2015. Comparative physic-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of Shea nut, Sesamum indicum, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis              melo seeds commonly cultivated in West Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14(31): 2449-2454.

Perez, G.R.M. 2016. Review of Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 6: 012- 021.

Rabia, A., Asma, S. and Tariq, M. 2014. Characterization and antibacterial study of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo). Life Sciences Leaflets, 49: 53-64.

Saavedra, M.J., Aires, A., Dias, C., Almedia, J.A., De Vasconcelos, M.C.B.M., Santos, P. and Rosa, E.A. 2013. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and           shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2): 1008- 1015.

Soetan, K.O., Olaiya, C.O. and Oyewole, O.E. 2010. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science, 4(5): 200-222.

Suleiman, R., Rosentrater, A. and Bern, C. 2013. Effects of deterioration parameters on storage of maize: A Review. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3(9): 147-165.

Tan, J.C., Burns, D.L. and Jones, H.R. 2006. Severe ataxia, myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy due to acquired copper deficiency in a patient with history of gastrectomy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 30: 446-450.

Adebayo, O.R., Farombi, A.G. and Oyekanmi, A.M. 2013. Proximate, mineral and anti-Nutrient evaluation of Pumpkin Pulp (Cucurbita pepo). IOSR Journal of Applied chemistry, 4(5): 25-28.

Adeniyi, O. and Ariwoola, O. 2019. Comparative Proximate Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties grown in south-western Nigeria. International Annals of Science, 7(1): 1-5.

Ardabili, G.A., Farhoosh, R. and Khodaparast, M.H.H. 2011.  Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita pepo Subsp. pepo Var. Styriaka) Grown in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology,13: 1053-1063.

Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). 1990. Official method of analysis. 15th ed. Washington, DC. USA.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International: Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Casiday, R. and Frey, R. 2012.Blood, sweat and buffers: pH Regulation during exercise. Washington University. pp 1-12.

Elinge, C.M., Muhammad, A., Atiku, F.A., Itodo, A.U., Peni, I.J., Sanni, O.M. and Mbongo, A.N. 2012. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds extract. International Journal of Plant Research, 2(5): 146-150.

Fila, W.A., Itam, E.H., Johnson, J.T., Odey, M.O., Effiong, E.E., Dasofunjo, K. and Ambo, E.E. 2013. Comparative proximate composition of watermelon citrullus lanatus, squash Cucurbita pepo’l and rambutan Nephelium lappaceum. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2(1): 81-88.

Gupta, C.P. 2014. Role of Iron (Fe) in body. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(11): 38-46.

Healthline Media, 2019. Phosphorus in Your Diet. Available on Internet at: https://www.healthline.com/health/phosphorus-in-diet#too-little-phosphorus 

Iheanacho, K.M.E. and Udebuani, A.C. 2009. Nutritional composition of some leafy vegetables consumed in Imo state, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13(3): 35- 38.

Kaya, I. and Incekara, N. 2000. Contents of some wild plants species consumed as food in Aegean region. Turkish Journal of Weed Science, 3: 56-64.

Kew Science, 2017.  Plants of the world online. Available on Internet at: http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:292416-1.

Kwiri, R., Winini, C., Musengi, A., Misheck, M., Nyambi, C., Muredzi, P. and Malunga, A. 2014. Proximate composition of pumpkin gourd (Cucurbita pepo) seeds from Zimbabwe. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 3(4): 279 -283.

Mensah, J.K., Okoli, R.I., Ohaju-Obodo, J.O., Eifediyi, K. 2008. Phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 2304-2309.

Mohammed, A.A. 2004. Chemical Composition and Oil Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed kernels. Res. Bult. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Center, King Saud Univ., 129: 5-18.

Mohaammed, S.S., Paiko, Y.B., Mann, A., Ndamitso, M.M., Mathew, J.T. and Maaji, S. 2014. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional composition of Cucurbita maxima fruits parts. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research, 19: 37-49.

Obi, R.K., Nwanebu, F.C., Ndubuisi, U.U. and Orji, N.M. 2009. Antibacterial qualities and phytochemical screening of the oils of Curcubita pepo and Brassica nigra. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3950: 429- 432.

Ouattara, C.A.T., Somda, M.K., Moyen, R. and Traore, A.S. 2015. Comparative physic-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of Shea nut, Sesamum indicum, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis              melo seeds commonly cultivated in West Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14(31): 2449-2454.

Perez, G.R.M. 2016. Review of Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 6: 012- 021.

Rabia, A., Asma, S. and Tariq, M. 2014. Characterization and antibacterial study of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo). Life Sciences Leaflets, 49: 53-64.

Saavedra, M.J., Aires, A., Dias, C., Almedia, J.A., De Vasconcelos, M.C.B.M., Santos, P. and Rosa, E.A. 2013. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and           shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2): 1008- 1015.

Soetan, K.O., Olaiya, C.O. and Oyewole, O.E. 2010. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science, 4(5): 200-222.

Suleiman, R., Rosentrater, A. and Bern, C. 2013. Effects of deterioration parameters on storage of maize: A Review. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3(9): 147-165.

Tan, J.C., Burns, D.L. and Jones, H.R. 2006. Severe ataxia, myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy due to acquired copper deficiency in a patient with history of gastrectomy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 30: 446-450.