Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance oil content and physiological status of Thymus daenensis Celak. under drought stress

Document Type : Original article


1 Soil Sciences department, Agriculture Faculty, Lorestan University, Khurramabad, Iran

2 Soil Sciences department, Agriculture Faculty, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

3 Soil Sciences department, Agriculture Faculty, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.


Background & Aim:Currently, the use of beneficial microorganisms with the hope to reduce the adverse effects of drought has been the focus of attention. In present study, the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and drought stress on essential oil (EO) and physiological status of Thymus daenensis Celak, were investigated.
Experimental: The experiment was arranged as a factorial pattern in a randomized complete design with three replications. Factors were four irrigation regimes included: well-watered (A: absence of stress), irrigation after depletion of 20-25% of field capacity (L: low stress), irrigation after depletion of the 35-40% of field capacity (M: mild stress) and irrigation after depletion of the 55-60% of field capacity (S: severe stress). Also, two PGPR treatments, non-inoculation (C: control) and inoculation with PGPR were conducted.
Results:The results showed that drought stress reduced root and shoot dry weight, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and gas change parameters but PGPR inoculation improved all of them. Proline, malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage and stomatal resistance increased with increasing water stress, but PGPR inoculation ameliorate these increases in corresponding treatments. PGPR inoculation increased essential oil production although this increase was not statistically significant but water stress decreased it.
Recommended applications/industries:The results suggest that PGPR inoculation could be an excellent strategy to alleviate adverse effects of water stress in Thymus daenensis cultivation in drought stress conditions. Therefore, farmers in semiarid regions could produce T. daenensis by using of PGPR at low water stress for the highest economic amount of extracted essential oil.


Article Title [فارسی]

تاثیر باکتریهای افزایش دهنده رشد گیاه بر عصاره و فاکتورهای فیزیولوژیکی آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak) در شرایط تنش خشکی

Authors [فارسی]

  • علی عبداللهی 1
  • محمد فیضیان 2
  • غزاله مهدی پوریان 3
1 گروه خاکشناسی ، دانشکده کشاورزی ، دانشگاه لرستان ، خرم آباد ، ایران؛
2 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی ، دانشگاه لرستان ، خرم آباد ، ایران؛
3 گروه خاکشناسی ، دانشکده کشاورزی ، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان ، اصفهان ، ایران؛
Abstract [فارسی]

زمینه و هدف: در حال حاضر استفاده از میکروارگانیسم های مفید به عنوان نهاده های کشاورزی پایدار و کارآمد با امیدواری در کاهش اثرات منفی خشکسالی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. به منظور بررسی تأثیر ریزوباکتری های تقویت کننده رشد گیاه (PGPR) و تنش خشکی بر اسانس (EO) و فاکتورهای فیزیولوژیکی آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak)، یک آزمایش در سال 2017 در شهرکرد انجام شد.
شرح آزمایش: آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورها چهار رژیم آبیاری و دو تلقیح PGPR بودند. فاکتور اول شامل چهار رژیم آبیاری عبارت بودند از: آبیاری کامل (A: عدم استرس) ، آبیاری پس از کاهش 20-25٪ ظرفیت مزرعه (FC) (L: استرس کم) ، آبیاری پس از کاهش 35-40 FC (M: استرس خفیف) و آبیاری پس از کاهش 60-55٪ FC (S: استرس شدید). فاکتور دوم شامل دو تیمار PGPR ، عدم تلقیح (C: شاهد) و تلقیح با PGPR (M: Pseudomonas fluorescens سویه 187 و Pseudomonas aeruginosa سویه MPFM) بود.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی باعث کاهش وزن خشک ریشه و شاخساره ، محتوای نسبی آب ، رنگدانه های فتوسنتزی و پارامترهای تبادل گازی شد اما تلقیح PGPR باعث بهبود آنها گردید. با افزایش تنش خشکی ، پرولین ، مالون دی آلدئید ، نشت الکترولیت و مقاومت روزنه ای افزایش یافت، اما تلقیح PGPR باعث کاهشاین فاکتورها در تیمارهای مربوطه شد. تلقیح PGPR باعث افزایش تولید اسانس گردید اگرچه این افزایش از نظر آماری معنی دار نبود اما تنش آب تولید اسانس را کاهش داد.
توصیه های صنعتی و عملی: نتایج نشان می دهد که تلقیح PGPR می تواند یک استراتژی عالی برای کاهش اثرات منفی تنش خشکی در کشت آویشن دنایی در شرایط تنش خشکی باشد، بنابراین کشاورزان مناطق نیمه خشک می توانند با استفاده از PGPR در تنش کم آب بیشترین مقدار EO در در آویشن دنایی تولید کنند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak)
  • اسانس
  • باکتریهای افزایش دهنده رشد گیاه
  • تنش خشکی
Abdul Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R. and Panneerselvam, R. 2007. Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomass yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 60: 7–11.
Agami, R.A., Medani, R.A., Abd El-Mola, I.A. and Taha, R.S. 2016. Exogenous application with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or proline induces stress tolerance in basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) exposed to water stress. International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research, 2(5): 78-92.
Bahadur, A., Singh, U.P., Sarma, B.K., Singh, D.P., Singh, K.P. and Singh, A. 2007. Foliar Application of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Antifungal Compounds in Pea (Pisum sativum) Against Erysiphe pisi. Mycobiology, 35(3): 129-134.
Baker, N.R., Harbinson, J. and Kramer, D.M. 2007. Determining the limitations and regulation of photosynthetic energy transduction in leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment, 30: 1107–1125.
Banchio, E., Bogino, P.C., Zygadlo, J. and Giordano, W. 2008. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve growth and essential oil yield in Origanum majorana L. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36: 766–771.
Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P. and Tear, I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205–207.
Cappellari, L., Santoro, M.V., Nievas, F., Giordano, W. and Banchio, E. 2013. Increase of secondary metabolite content in marigold by inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Applied Soil Ecology, 70: 16– 22
Cappellari, L., Santoro, M.V., Reinoso, H., Travaglia, C., Giordano, W. and Banchio, E. 2105. Anatomical, Morphological, and Phytochemical Effects of Inoculation with Plant Growth- Promoting Rhizobacteria on Peppermint (Mentha piperita). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41(2): 149-158.
Dey, R., Pal, K.K., Bhatt, D.M. and Chauhan, S.M. 2004. Growth promotion and yieldenhancement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiological Research, 159: 371–394.
Enebe, M.C. and Babalola, O.O. 2018. The influence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant tolerance to abiotic stress: a survival strategy. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 102: 7821–7835.
Ghorbanpour, M., Hatami, M., Kariman, K. and Abbaszadeh, P. 2016. Phytochemical variations and enhanced efficiency of antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients in Salvia officinalis as inoculated with different rhizobacteria. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 13: 319-330.
Gray, E.J. and Smith, D.L. 2005. Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities anddistinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37: 395– 412.
Heidari, M. and Golpayegani, A. 2012. Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 11: 57–61.
Heidari, M., Mosavinik, S.M. and Golpayegani, A. 2011. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect on physiology parameters and mineral uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under stress. Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 6: 6-11.
Khalil, R.R., Galal, H.A. and Darwisch, W.B. 2016. Role of Bio-Fertilizer Treatments in Alleviating the Adverse Effect of Water Stress in Mangifera indica. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 56(2): 471-488.
Khan, N., Asghari, B. and Peiman, Z. 2018. Effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators in combination with PGPR on the physiology and root growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and their role in drought tolerance. Journal of Plant Interactions, 13(1): 239–247.
Kordi, S., Saidi, M. and Ghanbari, F. 2013. Induction of drought tolerance in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by salicylic acid. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 2(2): 18-26.
Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of Plant to Environmental Stress: Water, Radiation, Salt and Other Stresses. Academic Press, New York.
Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: the pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148: 350–382.
Lu, Y.Y., Deng, X.P. and Kwak, S.S. 2015. Over expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in transgenic sweet potato enhances tolerance and recovery from drought stress. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 8378–8391.
Lutts, S., Kinet, J. and Bouharmont, J. 1996. NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Annals of Botany, 78: 389-398.
Mirmozaffari Roudsari, A., Yarnia, M., Asadi Rahmani, H. and Toorchi, M. 2015. The Effect of Seed inoculation with different bacterial strains on some morphological traits and essential oil of Medicinal plant Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) underwater stress. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 5(3): 76-84.
Mohammadi H., Esmailpour M., Ghorabi S., Hatami M. 2018. Physiological and biochemical changes in Matricaria chamomilla induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and water deficit stress. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 111(1): 63-72.
Mohammadi, H., Dashi, R., Farzaneh, F., Parviz, L. and Hashempour, H. 2016. Effects of beneficial root pseudomonas on morphological, physiological, and phytochemical characteristics of Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae) under water stress. Brazilian Journal of Botany, 40: 41-48.
Mohammadi. M., Khavazi, K., Malakouti, M.J. and Rejali, F. 2017. Improve the quality of two cultivars of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with using Phosphate and Zinc biofertilizers. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 8(2): 44-56.
Nadeem, S.M., Ahmad, M., Zahir, Z.A., Javaid, A. and Ashraf, M. 2104. The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments. Biotechnology Advances, 32: 429–448.
Naderifar, M. and daneshian, J. 2012. Effect of different nitrogen and biofertilizers effect on growth and yield of Brassica napus L. International journal of agriculture and crop sciences, 4(8): 478-482.
Nascente, A.S., Corsi de Filippi, M.C., Lanna, A.C., Alves de Souza, A.C., da Silva Lobo, V.L. and Barata da Silva, G. 2017. Biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in upland rice plants affected by application forms of microorganism growth promoters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(3): 2956-2965.
Ndeddy Aka, R.J. and Babalola, O.O. 2016. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, alcaligenes feacalis and bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (cd, cr, and ni) uptake of brassica juncea. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 18(2): 200-209.
Nickavar, B., Mojab, F. and Dolat-Abadi, R. 2005. Analysis of the essential oils of two Thymus species from Iran. Food Chemistry, 90: 609–611.
Sangwan, N.S., Farooqi, A.H.A., Shabih, F. and Sangwan, R.S., 2001. Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regulation, 34: 3–21.
Seema, K., Mehta, K. and Singh, N. 2018. Studies on the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth, physiological parameters, yield and fruit quality of strawberry cv. Chandler. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(2): 383-387.
Seghatoleslami, M. 2013. Effect of water stress, bio-fertilizer and manure on seed and essential oil yield and some morphological traits of cumin. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19: 1268-1274.
Siripornadulsil, S., Traina, S., Verma, D.S. and Sayre, R.T. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metals in transgenic microalgae. Plant Cell, 14: 2837–2847.
Van Loon, L.C. 2007. Plant response to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 119: 243–254.
Velikova, V., Yordanov, I. and Edreva, A. 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science, 151: 59–66.
Vurukonda, S.S.K.P., Vardharajula, S., Shrivastava, M. and SkZ, A. 2015. Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiological Research, 184: 13-24.
Zhang, H., Kim, M.S., Krishnamachari, V., Payton, P., Sun, Y., Grimson, M., Farag, M.A., Ryu, C.M., Allen, R., Melo, I.S. and Pare, P.W. 2007. Rhizobacterial volatile emissions regulate auxin homeostasis and cell expansion in Arabidopsis. Planta, 226: 839–851.
Zhu, X.C., Song, F.B., Liu, S.Q., Liu, T.D. and Zhou, X. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizae improves photosynthesis and water status of Zea mays L. under drought stress. Plant, Soil and Environment, 58: 186–191.