Evaluation of the effect of ultrasound-assisted variables on phenolic compounds extraction from almond(Prunus amygdalus) hull

Document Type: Original article

Authors

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran

Abstract

Background & aims: Extraction of major phenolic compounds from agricultural crop residues is important for the development of value-added products. Almond (Prunus amygdalus) is one of the most indigenous fruit crops that is grown in large quantities in Iran. Almond hulls are considered as by-product which are used only for animal feed. The aim of this study was to compare the phenolic compounds extraction yield from almond hulls using ultrasound and percolation methods.
Experimental: An optimization procedure using central composite design (CCD) with 4 factors (solvent, frequency, time and temperature) at 5 levels was used in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the extraction. Finally, the effect of solid to solvent ratio on phenolic compounds extraction was evaluated and compared with soxhlet method.
Results: The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions is found to be 86% ethanol, 50 °C , 75 min and 163 Hz  for  temperature,  time and frequency, respectively. In addition, the extraction of phenolic compounds was evaluated in different ratios of solid to solvent (10: 1, 20: 1, 30: 1, 40: 1(w / w) at the optimum conditions and antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by DPPH method. The maximum extraction of phenolic compounds was obtained in the ratio of 40: 1(w / w) with the amount of 1134.19± 0.23 mg/g of dry matter. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the extract was 87.42% for ultrasound extraction which was significantly (α<0.05) different from percolation method.
Recommended applications/industries: Application of new techniques including ultrasound in the extraction of phenolic compounds can be an effective method not only to increase the extraction yield of phenolic compounds but also due to the shorter extraction time, less damage is done to these compounds.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

ارزیابی تأثیر متغیر های فراصوت بر استخراج ترکیبات فنولی موجود در پوست سبز بادام (Prunus amygdalus)

Authors [Persian]

  • ویکتوریا مسعودی 1
  • اعظم اعرابی 2
1 گروه مهندسی شیمی، گرایش علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرضا شهرضا، ایران
2 گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرضا، شهرضا، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه و هدف: استخراج ترکیبات فنولی از باقی مانده محصولات کشاورزی برای توسعه محصولات با ارزش افزوده مهم است. بادام(Prunusamygdalus)یکی از محصولات کشاورزی بومی کشور است که به مقدار زیاد در کشور پرورش داده می‌شود. در این مطالعه از پوست سبز بادام به­ عنوان یک محصول جانبی که امروزه صرفاً برای تغذیه دام استفاده می‌شود جهت بررسی استخراج ترکیبات فنولیک و خاصیت آنتی­اکسیدانی آنها استفاده شده است.
روش تحقیق: در این تحقیق استخراج ترکیبات فنولی با استفاده از امواج فراصوت به روش سطح پاسخ و با کمک نرم­ افزار مینی تب مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و اثر چهار پارامتر دما، زمان تیمار با فراصوت، فرکانس امواج فراصوت و غلظت اتانول هر کدام در پنج سطح بر میزان استخراج ترکیبات فنولی مورد بررسی و بهینه‌سازی قرار گرفت. در نهایت تاثیر نسبت حلال به ماده جامد بر میزان استخراج این ترکیبات بررسی شده م با روش متداول سوکسله مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج آزمون­ها بر اساس طراحی انجام شده نشان داد که مقدار بهینه استخراج در شرایطی که اتانول 86 %، دما 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد، زمان 75 دقیقه و فرکانس 163هرتز باشد به‌دست می‌آید. همچنین تأثیر نسبت حلال به ماده جامد (پوست بادام ) در نسبت­های (w/w 1:10، 1:20، 1:30، 1:40) طبق شرایط بهینه به­ دست آمده در مرحله قبل با امواج فراصوت ارزیابی گردید و ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی عصاره­ های استخراج شده در این شرایط با روش مهار رادیکال آزادDPPHاندازه­گیری گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقدار ترکیبات فنولیک و ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی در نسبت 40:1 حلال به ماده جامد به ترتیب برابر 19/1134 میلی­گرم بر گرم ماده خشک و 42/87 درصد به دست آمد. نتایج این نسبت از حلال و ماده جامد با نتایج به­دست آمده از استخراج ترکیبات فنولیک با روش سوکسله و در حضور اتانول خالص تفاوت معناداری را در ترکیبات فنولیک و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی آن نشان داد.
توصیه‌های کاربردی/ صنعتی:. کاربرد تکنیک‌های جدید از جمله امواج فراصوت در استخراج ترکیبات فنولی از منابع گیاهی می‌تواند راهکار موثری نه تنها برای افزایش میزان استخراج این ترکیبات باشد بلکه به دلیل زمان کوتاهتر، آسیب کمتری نیز به این ترکیبات وارد می‌شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • Prunus amygdalus
  • ترکیبات فنولیک
  • فراصوت
  • ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی
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